Microarray detection of E2F pathway activation and other targets in multiple sclerosis peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
ABSTRACT We performed microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and detected a profile of immune cell activation, autoantigen upregulation, and enhanced E2F pathway transcription. Accordingly, E2f1-deficient mice manifested only mild disability upon induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Furthermore, PBMCs from Avonex-treated patients had lower expression of E2F targets. The profile was enriched in genes known to harbor MS-associated polymorphisms, or localized to MS susceptibility chromosomal regions. Our study shows that PBMC microarrays reflect MS pathobiology that can be validated in the EAE model.
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ABSTRACT: The E2F transcription factor family is known to play a key role in the timely expression of genes required for cell cycle progression and proliferation, but only a few E2F target genes have been identified. We explored the possibility that E2F regulators play a broader role by identifying additional genes bound by E2F in living human cells. A protocol was developed to identify genomic binding sites for DNA-binding factors in mammalian cells that combines immunoprecipitation of cross-linked protein-DNA complexes with DNA microarray analysis. Among approximately 1200 genes expressed during cell cycle entry, we found that the promoters of 127 were bound by the E2F4 transcription factor in primary fibroblasts. A subset of these targets was also bound by E2F1. Most previously identified target genes known to have roles in DNA replication and cell cycle control and represented on the microarray were confirmed by this analysis. We also identified a remarkable cadre of genes with no previous connection to E2F regulation, including genes that encode components of the DNA damage checkpoint and repair pathways, as well as factors involved in chromatin assembly/condensation, chromosome segregation, and the mitotic spindle checkpoint. Our data indicate that E2F directly links cell cycle progression with the coordinate regulation of genes essential for both the synthesis of DNA as well as its surveillance.Genes & Development 02/2002; 16(2):245-56. · 12.44 Impact Factor
- Genes & Development 09/1998; 12(15):2245-62. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: E2F plays critical roles in cell cycle progression by regulating the expression of genes involved in nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, and cell cycle control. We show that the combined loss of E2F1 and E2F2 in mice leads to profound cell-autonomous defects in the hematopoietic development of multiple cell lineages. E2F2 mutant mice show erythroid maturation defects that are comparable with those observed in patients with megaloblastic anemia. Importantly, hematopoietic defects observed in E2F1/E2F2 double-knockout (DKO) mice appear to result from impeded S phase progression in hematopoietic progenitor cells. During DKO B-cell maturation, differentiation beyond the large pre-BII-cell stage is defective, presumably due to failed cell cycle exit, and the cells undergo apoptosis. However, apoptosis appears to be the consequence of failed maturation, not the cause. Despite the accumulation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in S phase, the combined loss of E2F1 and E2F2 results in significantly decreased expression and activities of several E2F target genes including cyclin A2. Our results indicate specific roles for E2F1 and E2F2 in the induction of E2F target genes, which contribute to efficient expansion and maturation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Thus, E2F1 and E2F2 play essential and redundant roles in the proper coordination of cell cycle progression with differentiation which is necessary for efficient hematopoiesis.Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/2003; 23(10):3607-22. · 5.37 Impact Factor