To report the finding of nasolacrimal drainage system obstruction associated with I(131) therapy for thyroid carcinoma from an updated and expanded cohort.
Patients with a history of epithelial derived thyroid carcinoma who had tearing were offered referral for evaluation by an oculoplastic surgeon. Patients underwent nasolacrimal probing and irrigation procedures with localization of their nasolacrimal obstruction. Therapy for the site of obstruction was instituted.
Clinically significant tearing was identified in 26 patients, all of whom had previously undergone I(131) therapy (n = 563). Nineteen patients were evaluated and confirmed to have nasolacrimal drainage system obstruction; 7 have yet to be formally evaluated. Areas of obstruction included nasolacrimal duct, common canaliculus, and, rarely, distal upper and lower canaliculi. Patients were treated with a variety of modalities including silicone intubation, balloon dacryoplasty, dacryocystorhinostomy, and conjunctival dacryocystorhinostomy.
The use of I(131) for thyroid carcinoma is associated with a 3.4% incidence of documented nasolacrimal drainage obstruction and an overall 4.6% incidence of documented or suspected obstruction. The true incidence may be higher, since - I(131) treated individuals were neither systematically evaluated nor questioned about tearing. It has yet to be established if the obstructions result from local toxicity caused by the passive flow of radioactive iodine containing tears through these tissues or the active uptake and concentration of I(131) in lacrimal drainage system tissues through the sodium/iodide supporter.
"Symptomatic canalicular stenosis often requires insertion of a Jones tube; in a series of 13 patients with radiation-induced canalicular stenosis, 12 were relieved of their symptoms after conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (Call & Welham 1981). Nasolacrimal duct and canalicular obstruction may also occur in patients treated with intravenous radioactive iodine (I131), perhaps as a result of the passive passage of tears containing radioactive iodine or active uptake into the tissues of the drainage system (Burns et al. 2004). In addition, it should be noted that concurrent chemotherapy with agents such as 5-fluorouracil or docetaxel may also be responsible for punctal-canalicular stenosis (Eiseman et al. 2003; Esmaeli et al. 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of radiotherapy in ophthalmic practice continues to grow. This growth has seen an expansion of indications for radiotherapy, a refinement of the modalities that can be used and a reduction in the ocular and adnexal complications that result from this form of therapy. The compendium of indications for radiotherapy in ophthalmology continues to grow and now includes many conditions such as the treatment of lid and adnexal disease, ocular surface disorders and both benign and malignant disease of the posterior segment and optic pathways. The radiotherapeutic modalities employed to manage these conditions are numerous and include both radioactive plaques (brachytherapy) and external beam radiation techniques. New techniques such as stereotactic radiosurgery are delivering benefits in the management of conditions such as optic nerve sheath meningioma, where the treatment of this blinding and occasionally life-threatening intracranial neoplasm now results in fewer adverse affects. The purpose of this review is to give a brief overview of the indications and treatment modalities, and a more in-depth discussion of the potential side-effects when radiotherapy is used for ocular and periorbital disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We survey security research from the point of view of the
dependability taxonomy developed by IFIP Working Group 10.4 and discuss
changes since a similar survey was performed four years ago
Computer Security, Dependability and Assurance: From Needs to Solutions, 1998. Proceedings; 02/1998
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of epithelial derived thyroid cancer (papillary thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer, known collectively as differentiated thyroid cancer) is rising. About 80% of patients with thyroid cancer have PTC and are best treated with thyroidectomy and functional lymph node dissection, followed by radioiodine ablation or therapy and performance of a posttreatment whole-body scan, followed by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression. One year after radioiodine administration, the use of sensitive thyroglobulin (Tg) assays can separate the vast majority of patients with persistent disease from those who are free of disease and unlikely to have recurrent disease all without the need for repeat whole-body radioiodine imaging. Patients with detectable serum Tg during TSH suppression (Tg-on) or Tg that rises above 2 ng/mL after TSH stimulation (TSH-Tg) are highly likely to harbor residual tumor. TSH stimulation can be achieved using either thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human TSH (rhTSH). Highly skilled screening neck ultrasonography can identify a few additional patients with subcentimeter residual neck lymph node metastases not detected by TSH-Tg. However, ultrasonography and chest computed tomography (CT) are most critical for tumor localization in those patients with Tg values that suggest residual disease or in those patients with persistent antithyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) that falsely lower Tg measurement. TgAb quantitative titers typically resolve steadily over just a few years in patients free of disease after initial therapy. Another paradigm shift is the recognition that most patients who eventually achieve freedom from disease do so by surgery with fewer patients cured by repetitive radioiodine treatments, and even fewer cured with external beam radiation. Patients who appear to be free of disease require a lifetime of follow-up to optimize levothyroxine treatment, and they will undergo periodic stimulation testing because some will still manifest recurrent disease. Patients with persistent disease despite negative ultrasonography, chest CT, and whole-body radioiodine imaging may have a tumor identified by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, optimally performed with combined TSH stimulation and image fusion with CT or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with metastatic disease who are unresponsive to conventional treatment are encouraged to participate in increasingly available thyroid cancer-specific clinical trials using targeted experimental oral or intravenous chemotherapeutic agents to address this tumor that has historically proven resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic agents.
Current Treatment Options in Oncology 08/2005; 6(4):323-38. DOI:10.1007/s11864-005-0036-8 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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