"Both viable and nonviable probiotic microorganisms have shown to be effective in reducing the incidence and duration of diarrhoea, alleviating the clinical symptoms of lactose maldigestion and preventing candidiasis (Ouwehand & Salminen, 1998; Sanders, 2008). However, along with these beneficial effects, several side effects such as bacteremia, endocarditis and liver abscess have been reported in patients consuming probiotic products containing live bacteria (Rautio et al., 1999; Kunz et al., 2004; Mackay et al., 2008). Rachmilewitz et al. (2004) concluded that specifically DNA from bacteria may provide therapeutic effects in inflammatory disease rather than viable cells. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of different levels of fat and inulin on bacterial cell counts, degree of proteolysis and concentrations of organic acids in the yogurt containing inactivated cells of probiotic strains Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus were investigated. Results showed that both L. acidophilus and B. animalis grew well in the yogurt samples reaching cell counts higher than 106 CFU mL−1 at the final pH of 4.5. Inulin at the concentration of 1% had no significant effects on the production of organic acids and cell counts of L. acidophilus, but promoted the growth of B. animalis with a reduction in the degree of proteolysis. Generally, different fat levels showed significant effects on the production of organic acids and nonsignificant effects on the cell counts of probiotic bacteria and degree of proteolysis. In case of lactic acid, the ratio of L- (+)to D- (−) isomer ranged from 50/50 to 80/20 in yogurt samples.
International Journal of Food Science & Technology 01/2014; 49(1):261-268. DOI:10.1111/ijfs.12315 · 1.35 Impact Factor
"Hp: Helicobacter pylori, AB: AB yogurt, IL-10: interleukin-10, TNF-í µí»¼: tumor necrosis factor-alpha. are immune compromised and have been reported in the literature         , so we also monitored this possible side effect. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The suppression of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) decreases H. pylori-related diseases. The probiotics have an inhibitory effect on H. pylori. Aim. We investigated the effects of long-term use of yogurt on H. pylori based on Mongolian gerbils' model. Materials and Methods. Yogurt (containing a supplement of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, etc.) was used. Forty-six gerbils were divided into five groups. All groups were inoculated with H. pylori for 5 to 8 weeks. The yogurt was given as follows: Group (Gr.) A: from 1st to 4th week; Gr. B from 5th to 8th week; Gr. C: from 17th week to sacrifice; Gr. D: from 5th week to sacrifice. Gerbils were sacrificed on the 52nd week. Histology was evaluated according to the Sydney system. Results. The positive rates of H. pylori were 60% (Gr. A), 75% (Gr. B), 67% (Gr. C), 44% (Gr. D), and 100% (Gr. E). Gr. D showed lower inflammatory score. Only Gr. E (60%) had intestinal metaplasia. Gr. D showed higher IL-10 and lower TNF- α expression than Gr. E. Conclusion. Long-term intake of yogurt could decrease H. pylori infection. The long-term use of yogurt would be an alternative strategy to manage H. pylori infection.
"Several case reports of sepsis caused by probiotic organisms especially in immune-compromised individuals have been published    . Kunz et al.  reported two preterm infants with short gut who developed Lactobacillus sepsis while taking Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplements. Land et al.  reported LGG probiotic sepsis occurring in immunocompromised infants and children. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nosocomial sepsis is associated with increased mortality and morbidity including neurodevelopmental impairment and prolonged hospital stay. Prevention of sepsis especially in the preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit remains a major challenge. The gastrointestinal tract is an important source of potential pathogens causing nosocomial sepsis as the immature intestinal epithelium can permit translocation of bacteria and yeast. The intestinal tract and its microflora play an important role in the immunity. Altering the gut microflora has been extensively studied for immunomodulation in preterm infants. Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics have been used for prevention and treatment of various medical conditions in children and adults. Studies on probiotics in premature infants have focused on normalizing intestinal flora, improvement in feeding intolerance, prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis. In this paper, we discuss the intestinal bacterial colonization pattern; the rational for probiotics and prebiotic therapy with special focus on the prevention of nosocomial sepsis in preterm infants.
International Journal of Pediatrics 01/2013; 2013:874726. DOI:10.1155/2013/874726
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