[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mean survival time following intracerebral inoculation of dengue virus was reduced and the titre of the virus in the brain of immunosuppressed mice was markedly increased. A single dose of cyclophosphamide given 24 h after dengue virus i.c. or i.p. substantially reduced the number of antibody forming cells in the spleen. Three doses of dengue virus, each followed by cyclophosphamide 24 h later, produced specific hyporesponsiveness to the dengue virus but not to a heterologous virus (Coxsackie B4), with a reduction in antibody forming cells in the spleen of such animals against dengue virus but not against Coxsackie B4 virus. Adoptive immunity by antiserum was abolished along with increased titres of the virus in the brain of immunosuppressed mice but the protection could be restored by a second dose of antiserum. Pre-treatment of mice with immune or normal spleen cells i.v. or reconstitution of immunosuppressed mice by such cells had no effect. Thus, humoral antibodies play a crucially important role in host defence mechanism in recovery of mice from primary dengue virus infection.
Journal of General Virology 10/1977; 36(3):449-58. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the Cuban dengue epidemics of 1981 and 1997, significant monthly increases were observed in the proportion of total cases that presented as dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), and in case-fatality rates for both dengue fever and DHF/DSS. We believe that theses increases can be explained by the hypothesis that some of the population of antibodies against dengue 1 virus raised after natural primary infections react with "neutralisation" determinants found on dengue 2 viruses. These heterotypic antibodies do not prevent secondary dengue 2 infections, but serve to down-regulate the disease to mild illness or symptomless infections. A population of dengue 2 viruses that replicates in dengue-1-immune hosts escape heterotypic neutralisation. When inoculated into a new dengue-1-immune host, these viruses are free to interact with the more abundant infection-enhancing antibodies to produce severe disease.
The Lancet 06/2000; 355(9218):1902-3. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue viruses occur as four antigenically related but distinct serotypes transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These viruses generally cause a benign syndrome, dengue fever, in the American and African tropics, and a severe syndrome, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), in Southeast Asian children. This severe syndrome, which recently has also been identified in children infected with the virus in Puerto Rico, is characterized by increased vascular permeability and abnormal hemostasis. It occurs in infants less than 1 year of age born to dengue-immune mothers and in children 1 year and older who are immune to one serotype of dengue virus and are experiencing infection with a second serotype. Dengue viruses replicate in cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage, and subneutralizing concentrations of dengue antibody enhance dengue virus infection in these cells. This antibody-dependent enhancement of infection regulates dengue disease in human beings, although disease severity may also be controlled genetically, possibly by permitting and restricting the growth of virus in monocytes. Monoclonal antibodies show heterogeneous distribution of antigenic epitopes on dengue viruses. These epitopes serve to regulate disease: when antibodies to shared antigens partially neutralize heterotypic virus, infection and disease are dampened; enhancing antibodies alone result in heightened disease response. Further knowledge of the structure of dengue genomes should permit rapid advances in understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms of dengue.
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