Smoking, Coffee, and Pancreatitis

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Oakland, California 94611, USA.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 10.76). 04/2004; 99(4):731-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.04143.x
Source: PubMed


We studied relationships of cigarette smoking and coffee drinking to risk of pancreatitis.
This was a cohort study among 129,000 prepaid health plan members who supplied data about demographics and habits in 1978-85. Among 439 persons subsequently hospitalized for pancreatitis, probable etiologic associations were cholelithiasis (168/439 = 38%), alcohol (125/439 = 29%), idiopathic (110/430 = 25%), and miscellaneous (36/439 = 8%). Cox proportional hazards models with seven covariates (including alcohol intake) yielded relative risk estimates for smoking and coffee use.
Increasing smoking was strongly related to increased risk of alcohol-associated pancreatitis, less related to idiopathic pancreatitis, and unrelated to gallstone-associated pancreatitis. Relative risks (95% confidence intervals, CI) of one pack per day (vs never) smokers for pancreatitis groups were: alcohol = 4.9 (2.2-11.2, p < 0.001), idiopathic = 3.1 (1.4-7.2, p < 0.01), and gallstone = 1.3 (0.6-3.1). The relationship of smoking to alcohol-associated pancreatitis was consistent in sex and race subsets. Drinking coffee, but not tea, was weakly inversely related to risk only of alcohol-associated pancreatitis, with relative risk (95% CI) per cup per day = 0.85 (0.77-0.95; p= 0.003). Male sex, black ethnicity, and lower-educational attainment were other predictors of alcohol-associated pancreatitis.
Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for alcohol-associated and idiopathic pancreatitis. Coffee drinking is associated with reduced risk of alcohol-associated pancreatitis. The data are compatible with the hypotheses that smoking may be toxic to the pancreas or may potentiate other pancreatic toxins while some ingredient in coffee may have a modulating effect.

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    • "의 수치를 낮추는 효과[5], 췌장염의 위험 감소[6], 지방 분해 증가에 의한 체중 감소와 체지방 개선[7] [8], 항산화 성[9]과 항균력[10] [11]에 관한 연구가 이루어졌다. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to apply in the HACCP(Hazard Analysis Critical control) system of liquefied coffee and sikhe. The establishment of Critical limit during sterilization processing was measured by sterilization temperature and sterilization time for 30 days from April 1~30, 2012, and it was conducted at P company in Jincheon (Chungcheongbuk-do), korea. As a result, microbial(coliform, bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and yeast & mold) of sikhe and liquefied coffee were detected before sterilization. In contrat, all microbial was not detected to Sikhe(238mL Can, 500mL and 300mL PP, 1.8L PP) after sterilization (, and mins at , respectively) and Liquefied coffee was not detected after sterilization(, mins). The sterilizer condition for deciding the most temperature and time were , mins. In conclusion, the sterilization process would be a great alternative to prevention, decreasing and removing of harmful microorganism, such as general bacteria, coliform and pathogenic bacteria etc. Therefore, the critical limit of sterilization temperature and time for quality control and biosafety was established at , mins. And it suggests that HACCP plan is necessary for monitoring method, monitoring cycle, solving method, education, training and record management during sterilization processing.
    11/2012; 13(11). DOI:10.5762/KAIS.2012.13.11.5247
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    • "Both smoking and dietary factors may contribute to the risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. Although the issue is complicated by the interrelationship between smoking and drinking, recent studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for alcohol-related pancreatitis and that smoking accelerates the disease progression (Maisonneuve et al. 2005;Morton et al. 2004;Yadav & Whitcomb 2010). Further, one report (Yadav et al. 2009) provides evidence that there is possibly a synergistic association between alcohol and smoking in the development of pancreatitis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse is one of the most common causes of pancreatitis. The risk of developing alcohol-induced pancreatitis is related to the amount and duration of drinking. However, only a small portion of heavy drinkers develop disease, indicating that other factors (genetic, environmental, or dietary) contribute to disease initiation. Epidemiologic studies suggest roles for cigarette smoking and dietary factors in the development of alcoholic pancreatitis. The mechanisms underlying alcoholic pancreatitis are starting to be understood. Studies from animal models reveal that alcohol sensitizes the pancreas to key pathobiologic processes that are involved in pancreatitis. Current studies are focussed on the mechanisms responsible for the sensitizing effect of alcohol; recent findings reveal disordering of key cellular organelles including endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and lysosomes. As our understanding of alcohol's effects continue to advance to the level of molecular mechanisms, insights into potential therapeutic strategies will emerge providing opportunities for clinical benefit.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 02/2011; 35(5):830-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01408.x · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    • "Alcoholic pancreatitis predominantly affects males (male: female ratio ¼ 2.5:1), occurs predominantly in young adults (approximate mean age, 35 years [41]), and occurs more frequently in American blacks than in whites (relative risk, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8–3.9) [37]. Pain is the predominant symptom of alcoholic pancreatitis [42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is a relatively common disease that affects about 300,000 patients per annum in America with a mortality of about 7%. About 75% of pancreatitis is caused by gallstones or alcohol. Other important causes include hypertriglyceridemia, medication toxicity, trauma from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, hypercalcemia, abdominal trauma, various infections, autoimmune, ischemia, and hereditary causes. In about 15% of cases the cause remains unknown after thorough investigation. This article discusses the causes, diagnosis, imaging findings, therapy, and complications of acute pancreatitis.
    Medical Clinics of North America 08/2008; 92(4):889-923, ix-x. DOI:10.1016/j.mcna.2008.04.013 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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