Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of BBR 3576, a novel aza-anthrapyrazole, administered i.v. every 4 weeks in patients with advanced solid tumors: a phase I study group trial of the Central European Society of Anticancer-Drug Research (CESAR).
ABSTRACT BBR 3576 is a novel aza-anthrapyrazole with limited potential for cardiotoxicity in preclinical models. This phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study was performed to determine the maximum tolerated dose, the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and the pharmacokinetic profile of BBR 3576 administered i.v. as a 1-h infusion repeated every 4 weeks. In total, 27 patients were treated at doses starting from 1 to 150 mg/m2. The dose levels 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 90, 125 and 150 mg/m2 were investigated in one, three, one, three, two, one, three, four, three and six patients, respectively. The DLT was a grade 3 stomatitis at 150 mg/m2. At this dose level as well as at 125 mg/m2, neutropenia grade 3 and 4 were frequently seen, but not reaching the criteria for DLT. Time to neutrophil nadir was about 2 weeks and recovery took place within 1 week. Other bone marrow toxicities were mild; lymphopenia was also observed. No significant drug-induced cardiotoxicity was observed. The plasma concentration versus time curves of BBR 3576 showed a biexponential profile with a linear kinetic behavior. A very large volume of distribution, a high plasma clearance and long elimination half-lives were calculated. Renal unchanged drug excretion was less than 10% and therefore a minor excretion route. No objective antitumor responses were found. On the basis of this study, the recommended dose for phase II studies is 150 mg/m2, although the maximum tolerated dose as per protocol definition was not reached. This trial showed that BBR 3576 has a manageable toxicity profile on a 4-week schedule. Phase II studies have started in patients with solid tumors, as suggested by preclinical data in different in vivo model systems.
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ABSTRACT: Anticancer cytotoxic agents go through a process by which their antitumor activity-on the basis of the amount of tumor shrinkage they could generate-has been investigated. In the late 1970s, the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization introduced specific criteria for the codification of tumor response evaluation. In 1994, several organizations involved in clinical research combined forces to tackle the review of these criteria on the basis of the experience and knowledge acquired since then. After several years of intensive discussions, a new set of guidelines is ready that will supersede the former criteria. In parallel to this initiative, one of the participating groups developed a model by which response rates could be derived from unidimensional measurement of tumor lesions instead of the usual bidimensional approach. This new concept has been largely validated by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Group and integrated into the present guidelines. This special article also provides some philosophic background to clarify the various purposes of response evaluation. It proposes a model by which a combined assessment of all existing lesions, characterized by target lesions (to be measured) and nontarget lesions, is used to extrapolate an overall response to treatment. Methods of assessing tumor lesions are better codified, briefly within the guidelines and in more detail in Appendix I. All other aspects of response evaluation have been discussed, reviewed, and amended whenever appropriate.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 03/2000; 92(3):205-16. · 14.34 Impact Factor
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- European Journal of Cancer 02/1991; 27(12):1542-4. · 5.06 Impact Factor