An evaluation of the effectiveness of forward facing child restraint systems
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of forward facing child restraint systems (FFCRS) in preventing serious injury and hospitalization to children 12-47 months of age as compared with similar age children in seat belts. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of children aged 12-47 months in crashes of insured vehicles in 15 states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey. Effectiveness estimates were limited to those children between 12 and 47 months of age seated in the back row(s) of vehicles, restrained in FFCRS, regardless of misuse, or seat belts of all types and usage. Completed survey information was obtained on 1207 children, representing 12632 children in 11619 crashes between 1 December 1998 and 31 May 2002. Serious injuries occurred to 0.47% of all 12-47-month olds studied, including 1.72% of those in seat belts and 0.39% of those in child restraint systems. The risk of serious injury was 78% lower for children in FFCRS than in seat belts (odds ratio (OR) = 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11-0.45, P = 0.001). The risk of hospitalization was 79% lower for children in FFCRS than in seat belts (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.09-050, P = 0.001). There was no difference between the restraint types in preventing minor injuries. As compared with seat belts, CRS are very highly effective in preventing serious injuries and hospitalization, respectively. This effectiveness estimate is substantially higher than older estimates, demonstrating the benefits of current CRS designs. These results provide those educating parents and caregivers population-based data on the importance of child restraint use.
SourceAvailable from: Luciano Jornada[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos pais sobre segurança no transporte de crianças em veículos automotores e motocicletas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado por meio de questionário autoaplicável em pais e responsáveis que acompanhavam crianças na sala de espera de ambulatórios público e privado. Para avaliar os conhecimentos sobre segurança no transporte de crianças, foram utilizadas as recomendações da Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Tráfego. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do teste do qui-quadrado e as variáveis quantitativas testadas por Mann-Whitney, sendo significante p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 248 pais, sendo 119 da rede privada e 129 da rede pública. Dentre as questões relacionadas com motocicletas, 76% daqueles que costumam transportar crianças nesse veículo acertaram a idade mínima permitida, todavia mais de 30% não acertaram a posição segura para tal. Quanto ao transporte em automóveis, a questão com maior percentual de respostas corretas foi referente à idade mínima para utilizar o banco da frente, com 64% de acertos. Nas demais questões, estes variaram de 24 a 46%. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento da população estudada sobre a segurança no transporte de crianças em veículos automotores é deficiente, tanto no emprego de dispositivos de retenção, pré-requisitos para o uso do banco da frente, bem como idade e forma de transporte de crianças em motocicletas.Revista Paulista de Pediatria 12/2011; 29(4):618-624. DOI:10.1590/S0103-05822011000400023
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Road traffic crashes are a significant cause of the disease burden among children, with the highest mortality in low- and middle-income countries. This observational study explores such injuries in Cape Town, South Africa through an analysis of data for cases in 1992, 2002 and 2012 at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, a referral paediatric hospital for children younger than 13 years. Descriptive and time trend analysis of demographic data as well as of the causes, severity and place of injury was conducted. Logistic regression and generalised linear models described factors influencing hospital admission. In the years 1992, 2002 and 2012, a total of 4690 patients presented with injuries sustained as a result of a road traffic crash. Nearly 50% (n = 2201) of them were between five and nine years of age, with 1.7 males for every female. Three-quarters of those who got injured were pedestrians while the second most commonly injured ones were unrestrained passengers. The majority had minor injuries (58%), but with notably higher proportions with moderate to severe injuries in the years 2002 and 2012. Forty per cent were admitted for inpatient treatment, with the highest proportion (50%) in 2002. Admission was related to mechanism and severity. The epidemiological factors assessed remain largely unchanged over the assessment points calling into question the impact of local safety strategies.International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 06/2014; DOI:10.1080/17457300.2014.912236 · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The risk for serious injury and death to children during motor vehicle accidents can be greatly reduced through the correct use of child passenger safety restraints (CPSRs). Unfortunately, most CPSRs are installed or used incorrectly. This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training (BST) to teach 10 participants to install rear-facing CPSRs correctly using a multiple baseline design. Results show that installation errors were common for all participants during baseline. After BST, all 10 participants were able to install the rear-facing CPSR without error. An extension probe to assess whether the skills taught during BST extended to forward-facing installation showed that each participant made at least 1 critical error.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 09/2014; 47(3). DOI:10.1002/jaba.143 · 1.19 Impact Factor