Inducible expression of a MAP kinase phosphatase-3-GFP chimera specifically blunts fibroblast growth and ras-dependent tumor formation in nude mice.
ABSTRACT The p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway participates in a wide range of cellular programs including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, like PD98059 and U0126, are often used to inhibit p42/p44 MAPK signaling. However, these inhibitors are not appropriate to study the function of these kinases in whole organisms. We thus developed an inducible system designed to inhibit p42/p44 MAPK activity through the expression of a phosphatase specific for these two kinases, the MAPK phosphatase 3 (MKP-3). A fibroblast cell line was established in which MKP-3 expression is controlled by tetracycline. Tetracycline-induced MKP-3 resulted in partial de-phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPKs in serum-stimulated cells. However, we could improve MKP-3 stability and thereby the rate of MAPK de-phosphorylation, when the C-terminal end of MKP-3 was fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Importantly, the fusion of GFP to MKP-3 did not alter the specificity of the phosphatase towards its MAPK substrates. We further show that conditional expression of MKP-3-GFP in this fibroblast cell line results in the inhibition of: (a) the phosphorylation of the p42/p44 MAPK substrates Elk1 and HIF-1alpha, (b) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, and c-fos gene transcription in response to MAPK pathway activation, and (c) cell proliferation. Finally, the MKP-3-GFP inducible cell line was transformed by Ha-ras and injected into nude mice. Treatment of mice with the tetracycline analog doxycycline resulted in a large delay in tumor emergence and growth as compared to the untreated control group, indicating that MKP-3-GFP activity is maintained in vivo. Altogether, these results show that inducible expression of MKP-3-GFP constitutes a valuable tool to study the role of p42/p44 MAPKs in various cellular responses in both cultured cell and animal models, a tool that may also be used to block unwanted cell growth in pathological conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Drug sensitivity assays were performed using a variation of a colorimetric [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)] assay on V79, CHO-AuxB1, CHRC5, NCI-H460, and NCI-H249 cell lines following optimization of experimental conditions for each cell line. Results from this assay were compared with data assimilated simultaneously by clonogenic assay and by dye exclusion assay. Good correlation was observed using the CHO-AuxB1 cell line and the pleiotropic drug-resistant mutant CHRC5, with similar degrees of relative resistance observed with both the MTT and clonogenic assays. Good correlation was observed between the clonogenic and MTT assays for 1-h drug exposures, although the MTT assay was more sensitive to vinblastine. In general, the clonogenic assay was more sensitive when continuous drug exposures were utilized, although this was primarily related to the increased drug exposure time. While the use of the MTT assay in drug sensitivity testing of primary tumor samples is limited, since contaminating normal cells may also reduce the tetrazolium, the MTT assay can be semiautomated, and therefore it offers a valid, simple method of assessing chemosensitivity in established cell lines.Cancer Research 03/1987; 47(4):936-42. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PD 098059 has been shown previously to inhibit the dephosphorylated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MAPKK1) and a mutant MAPKK1(S217E,S221E), which has low levels of constitutive activity (Dudley, D. T., Pang, L., Decker, S. J., Bridges, A. J., and Saltiel, A. R. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 7686-7689). Here we report that PD 098059 does not inhibit Raf-activated MAPKK1 but that it prevents the activation of MAPKK1 by Raf or MEK kinase in vitro at concentrations (IC50 = 2-7 microM) similar to those concentrations that inhibit dephosphorylated MAPKK1 or MAPKK1(S217E,S221E). PD 098059 inhibited the activation of MAPKK2 by Raf with a much higher IC50 value (50 microM) and did not inhibit the phosphorylation of other Raf or MEK kinase substrates, indicating that it exerts its effect by binding to the inactive form of MAPKK1. PD 098059 also acts as a specific inhibitor of the activation of MAPKK in Swiss 3T3 cells, suppressing by 80-90% its activation by a variety of agonists. The high degree of specificity of PD 098059 in vitro and in vivo is indicated by its failure to inhibit 18 protein Ser/Thr kinases (including two other MAPKK homologues) in vitro by its failure to inhibit the in vivo activation of MAPKK and MAP kinase homologues that participate in stress and interleukin-1-stimulated kinase cascades in KB and PC12 cells, and by lack of inhibition of the activation of p70 S6 kinase by insulin or epidermal growth factor in Swiss 3T3 cells. PD 098059 (50 microM) inhibited the activation of p42MAPK and isoforms of MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-1 in Swiss 3T3 cells, but the extent of inhibition depended on how potently c-Raf and MAPKK were activated by any particular agonist and demonstrated the enormous amplification potential of this kinase cascade. PD 098059 not only failed to inhibit the activation of Raf by platelet-derived growth factor, serum, insulin, and phorbol esters in Swiss 3T3 cells but actually enhanced Raf activity. The rate of activation of Raf by platelet-derived growth factor was increased 3-fold, and the subsequent inactivation that occurred after 10 min was prevented. These results indicate that the activation of Raf is suppressed and that its inactivation is accelerated by a downstream component(s) of the MAP kinase pathway.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1995; 270(46):27489-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sp1 regulates activation of many genes implicated in tumor growth and cell cycle progression. We have previously demonstrated its implication in the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription following growth factor stimulation of quiescent cells, a situation where p42/p44 mitogen-activate protein kinase (MAPK) activity is dramatically increased. Here we show that p42/p44 MAPK directly phosphorylates Sp1 on threonines 453 and 739 both in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of these sites to alanines decreases by half the MAPK-dependent transcriptional activity of Sp1, in the context of the VEGF promoter, in SL2 Drosophila cells devoid of the endogenous Sp1 protein. Moreover, inducible overexpression of the (T453A,T739A) Sp1 double mutant compromises MAPK-driven VEGF mRNA transcription in fibroblasts. These results highlight Sp1 as a key molecular link between elevated activation of the Ras > p42/p44MAPK signaling pathway and increased VEGF expression, two major steps deregulated in tumor cells.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2002; 277(23):20631-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor