The cost consequences of treatment-resistant depression.
ABSTRACT Treatment-resistant depression is a significant public health problem with profound effects on general medical and mental health-related health care costs.
To describe health care costs of patients with treatment-resistant depression as their illness progresses, in terms of pharmaceutical and medical expenditures, and to identify factors associated with increasing degrees of treatment resistance.
The MEDSTAT MarketScan Private Pay Fee for Service (FFS) Database, a medical and prescription claims database covering over 3.5 million enrollees, from 1995-2000. DESIGN AND STUDY SUBJECTS: 7737 patients with depression (ICD-9) who had 2 or more unsuccessful trials of antidepressant medication at an adequate dose for at least 4 weeks from 1995-2000 were defined as treatment-resistant in this study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed for these patients with treatment-resistant depression. The number of changes in depression medication treatment regimens was used as a proxy for increasing degrees of treatment resistance and its severity. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURE: Differences in health care expenditures associated with increasing degrees of treatment-resistant depression.
Total depression-related and general medical health care expenditures increased significantly as treatment-resistant depression increased in severity. Multivariate analyses of patient demographic characteristics were not associated with ongoing treatment resistance. Disease severity, type of antidepressant at index, comorbid mental health disorders, and membership in a managed health care plan were associated with increasing degrees of treatment resistance.
Depression and general medical health care expenditures increase with the degree of treatment-resistant depression. Disease management interventions for treatment-resistant depression that result in sustained remission early in the course of illness are most likely to be cost effective.
SourceAvailable from: John W Williams
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ABSTRACT: Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) applied to the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC) has been recently investigated as a potential treatment for severe and chronic treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Given its invasive and experimental nature, a comprehensive evaluation of its effectiveness and acceptability is of paramount importance. Therefore, we conducted the present systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis. Methods We searched the literature for English language prospective clinical trials on DBS of the SCC for TRD from 1999 through December 2012 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and SCOPUS, and performed a random effects exploratory meta-analysis using Event Rates and Hedges׳ g effect sizes. Results Data from 4 observational studies were included, totaling 66 subjects with severe and chronic TRD. Twelve-month response and remission rates following DBS treatment were 39.9% (95% CI=28.4% to 52.8%) and 26.3% (95% CI=13% to 45.9%), respectively. Also, depression scores at 12 months post-DBS were significantly reduced (i.e., pooled Hedges׳ g effect size=−1.89 [95% CI=−2.64 to −1.15, p<0.0001]). Also, there was a significant decrease in depression scores between 3 and 6 months (Hedges׳ g=−0.27, p=0.003), but no significant changes from months 6 to 12. Finally, dropout rates at 12 months were 10.8% (95% CI=4.3% to 24.4%). Limitations Small number of included studies (most of which were open label), and limited long-term effectiveness data. Conclusions DBS applied to the SCC seems to be associated with relatively large response and remission rates in the short- and medium- to long-term in patients with severe TRD. Also, its maximal antidepressant effects are mostly observed within the first 6 months after device implantation. Nevertheless, these findings are clearly preliminary and future controlled trials should include larger and more representative samples, and focus on the identification of optimal neuroanatomical sites and stimulation parameters.Journal of Affective Disorders 04/2014; 159:31–38. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.02.016 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depression is expensive to treat, but providing ineffective treatment is more expensive. Such is the case for many patients who do not respond to antidepressant medication. To assess the cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) plus usual care for primary care patients with treatment-resistant depression compared with usual care alone. Economic evaluation at 12 months alongside a randomised controlled trial. Cost-effectiveness assessed using a cost-consequences framework comparing cost to the health and social care provider, patients and society, with a range of outcomes. Cost-utility analysis comparing health and social care costs with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The mean cost of CBT per participant was £910. The difference in QALY gain between the groups was 0.057, equivalent to 21 days a year of good health. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was £14 911 (representing a 74% probability of the intervention being cost-effective at the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence threshold of £20 000 per QALY). Loss of earnings and productivity costs were substantial but there was no evidence of a difference between intervention and control groups. The addition of CBT to usual care is cost-effective in patients who have not responded to antidepressants. Primary care physicians should therefore be encouraged to refer such individuals for CBT.The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 11/2013; DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.112.125286 · 7.34 Impact Factor