How does deep brain stimulation work? Present understanding and future questions
ABSTRACT High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus or basal ganglia represents an effective clinical technique for the treatment of several medically refractory movement disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia). In addition, new clinical applications of DBS for other neurologic and psychiatric disorders (e.g., epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorder) have been vaulted forward. Although DBS has been effective in the treatment of movement disorders and is rapidly being explored for the treatment of other neurologic disorders, the scientific understanding of its mechanisms of action remains unclear and continues to be debated in the scientific community. Optimization of DBS technology for present and future therapeutic applications will depend on identification of the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action. The goal of this review is to address the present knowledge of the effects of high frequency stimulation within the central nervous system and comment on the functional implications of this knowledge for uncovering the mechanism(s) of DBS. Four general hypotheses have been developed to explain the mechanism(s) of DBS: depolarization blockade, synaptic inhibition, synaptic depression, and stimulation-induced modulation of pathologic network activity. Using the results from microdialysis, neural recording, functional imaging, and neural modeling experiments, the authors address the main hypotheses and attempt to reconcile what have been considered conflicting results from different research modalities.
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ABSTRACT: This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.02.003 · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an FDA-approved neurosurgical treatment for medication-refractory essential tremor. Its therapeutic benefit is highly dependent upon stimulation frequency and voltage parameters. We investigated these stimulation parameter-dependent effects on neural network activation by performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during DBS of the ventral lateral (VL) thalamus and comparing the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals induced by multiple stimulation parameter combinations in a within-subject study of swine. Low (10 Hz) and high (130 Hz) frequency stimulation was applied at 3, 5, and 7 V in the VL thalamus of normal swine (n = 5). We found that stimulation frequency and voltage combinations differentially modulated the brain network activity in the sensorimotor cortex, the basal ganglia, and the cerebellum in a parameter-dependent manner. Notably, in the motor cortex, high frequency stimulation generated a negative BOLD response, while low frequency stimulation increased the positive BOLD response. These frequency-dependent differential effects suggest that the VL thalamus is an exemplary target for investigating functional network connectivity associated with therapeutic DBS.NeuroImage 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.09.064 · 6.13 Impact Factor