Childhood abuse and risk of eating disorders in women.
ABSTRACT Eating disorders are one of the most common psychiatric disorders among women. Little is known about underlying causes.
To assess the association between childhood violence victimization and eating disorders, we performed a case-control study of women participating in the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles, a population-based sample of women 36 to 44 years of age. Cases were women who met the diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge-eating disorder after a structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV). A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess a history of abuse as a child.
Compared with women who reported no abuse, women who reported childhood physical abuse had twice the odds of suffering from subclinical eating disorder symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.3) or meeting DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder (2.1; 1.1-4.2). Women who reported both physical and sexual abuse during childhood had 3 times the odds of developing eating disorder symptoms (3.0; 1.3-6.8) and nearly 4 times the odds of meeting DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder (3.9; 1.3-11.5). These associations persisted within the subgroup of women with no depression antecedent to first onset of an eating disorder.
The present study provides additional evidence of an association between preadolescent trauma and psychiatric morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and risk of lifetime and past year intimate partner violence (IPV) among males and females with eating disorders. METHODS: Systematic review. We searched 15 electronic databases, supplemented by hand searching, citation tracking, updating a review on victimisation and mental disorder and expert recommendations. RESULTS: Eight papers were included, involving 6775 females and 4857 males. Individual studies reported that eating disorders are associated with a high prevalence and increased odds of lifetime IPV among both males and females. Evidence is lacking on eating disorder and past year IPV, on whether associations between eating disorder and IPV vary by type of IPV, and temporality. DISCUSSION: More research is needed to investigate the strength and nature of the association between eating disorders and IPV, including with regards to the direction of causality between eating disorders and IPV, and whether associations are mediated by childhood abuse.Journal of Psychiatric Research 05/2013; 47(9). DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.04.014 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The investigation of putative effects of early life stress (ELS) in humans on later behavior and neurobiology is a fast developing field. While epidemiological and neurobiological studies paint a somber picture of negative outcomes, relatively little attention has been devoted to integrating the breadth of findings concerning possible cognitive and emotional deficits associated with ELS. Emerging findings from longitudinal studies examining developmental trajectories of the brain in healthy samples may provide a new framework to understand mechanisms underlying ELS sequelae. The goal of this review was twofold. The first was to summarize findings from longitudinal data on normative brain development. The second was to utilize this framework of normative brain development to interpret changes in developmental trajectories associated with deficits in cognitive and affective function following ELS. Five principles of normative brain development were identified and used to discuss behavioral and neural sequelae of ELS. Early adversity was found to be associated with deficits in a range of cognitive (cognitive performance, memory, and executive functioning) and affective (reward processing, processing of social and affective stimuli, and emotion regulation) functions. Three general conclusions emerge: (1) higher-order, complex cognitive and affective functions associated with brain regions undergoing protracted postnatal development are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious effects of ELS; (2) the amygdala is particularly sensitive to early ELS; and (3) several deficits, particularly those in the affective domain, appear to persist years after ELS has ceased and may increase risk for later psychopathology.Psychopharmacology 03/2011; 214(1):55-70. DOI:10.1007/s00213-010-2009-2 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the characteristics specific to boys with disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the general context in which these DEB occur. Data were drawn from the SMASH02 database, a survey carried out among post-mandatory school students in Switzerland aged 16-20 years in 2002. Only males (N=3890) were included, and were classified into into one of four groups based on their level of concern about weight/food and on their eating behaviors, as follows: group 1: one concern without behavior (N=862); group 2: more than one concern without behavior (N=361); group 3: at least one behavior (N=798); and a control group (N=1869), according to previously validated items. Groups were compared for personal, family, school, experience of violence, and health-compromising behaviors variables on the bivariate level. All significant variables were included in a multinomial logistic regression using Stata 9 software. About one-half of the boys reported either a concern or unhealthy eating behavior. Compared with the control group, boys from the three groups were more likely to be students and to report a history of sexual abuse, delinquency, depression, and feeling fat. In addition, boys from group 3 were more likely to report a history of dieting, early puberty, peer teasing, having experienced violence, frequent inebriation, and being overweight. DEB concern adolescent males more frequently than thought and seem to be integrated in a general dysfunctional context, in which violence is predominant. Adolescent males also need to be screened for DEB. Moreover, prevention programs should target the increasing social and media pressure regarding boys ideal body shape and raise public consciousness about this phenomenon.Journal of Adolescent Health 03/2009; 44(2):111-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.019 · 2.75 Impact Factor