Based on culture and serological evidence, a strong association between Campylobacter jejuni infection and Gullain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been established. However, culture underestimates C. jejuni infection in GBS and the specificity of serology remains uncertain. Thus, a direct sensitive detection method for recent C. jejuni infection is required. We used the PCR technique in GBS patients to assess its role in the diagnosis of C. jejuni infection. From June 2001 to March 2003, stool specimens from 42 patients with GBS and an equal number of age- and gender-matched healthy controls were analysed for C. jejuni infection by culture and PCR. Gullain-Barré syndrome subtypes were classified by clinical and electrophysiological studies. Of the GBS patients, two (4.8%) and eight (19%) were positive by culture and PCR, respectively, and the difference was significant (P < 0.05). None of the controls were positive for C. jejuni by culture or PCR. All C. jejuni-positive GBS patients had axonal degeneration with or without sensory involvement. The incidence of C. jejuni-associated GBS cases was more frequent during summer than winter (7/19, 36.8% vs. 1/23, 4.3%, P < 0.01). Polymerase chain reaction appears to be a sensitive tool to detect preceding C. jejuni infection in GBS patients.
"When infection has been treated with antibiotics, Campylobacter may not be detected by culture, but sufficient bacterial DNA may remain in stool, so for this PCR technique is successfully used for the detection. PCR has earlier been used to detect Campylobacter species in stool from patients with gastroenteritis [51, 56] but very few studies are available where this method has been applied in patients with GBS [4, 35]. In a recent study, real-time PCR was used to detect C. jejuni in fecal samples from a French cohort of patients with GBS . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our current knowledge on Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans has progressively increased over the past few decades. Infection with C. jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, sometimes surpassing other infections due to Salmonella, Shigella, and Escherichia coli. Most infections are acquired due to consumption of raw or undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, and contaminated water. After developing the diagnostic methods to detect C. jejuni, the possibility to identify the association of its infection with new diseases has been increased. After the successful isolation of C. jejuni, reports have been published citing the occurrence of GBS following C. jejuni infection. Thus, C. jejuni is now considered as a major triggering agent of GBS. Molecular mimicry between sialylated lipooligosaccharide structures on the cell envelope of these bacteria and ganglioside epitopes on the human nerves that generates cross-reactive immune response results in autoimmune-driven nerve damage. Though C. jejuni is associated with several pathologic forms of GBS, axonal subtypes following C. jejuni infection may be more severe. Ample amount of existing data covers a large spectrum of GBS; however, the studies on C. jejuni-associated GBS are still inconclusive. Therefore, this review provides an update on the C. jejuni infections engaged in the pathogenesis of GBS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major disadvantages of generalized cell-to-cell mapping are
that: (1) every point in a cell is treated equally, regardless of its
distance from the center of a cell; (2) a point very close to the
boundary of a cell may belong to neighboring cells with particular
probabilities. The concept of generalized cell mapping is extended into
the formalism of a fuzzy cell-to-cell mapping. In the authors' approach
each cell is fuzzified and a fuzzy cell-to-cell mapping based on fuzzy
relations is driven. The proposed approach is applied to an illustrative
example and its results discussed
Intelligent Control, 1993., Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE International Symposium on; 09/1993
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacteriosis is a leading bacterial food-borne illness in developed countries. Guillain–Barré syndrome is the most common acute flaccid paralysis due to an autoimmune disorder in nature. A considerable number of Guillain–Barré syndrome patients present with a prior history of campylobacteriosis, and Guillain–Barré syndrome is considered a sequela of infections caused specifically by Campylobacter jejuni. Because Campylobacter is normally contracted through consumption of contaminated foods including those derived from food animals, food safety measures aimed at the disruption of oral transmission will not only reduce the prevalence of campylobacteriosis but also potentially lessen the incidence of Guillain–Barré syndrome. An emerging public health concern regarding Campylobacter is the issue of microbial food safety due to increasing numbers of antimicrobial-resistant isolates. Part of the reason to address this emerging microbial food safety concern is to institute and maintain better monitoring and control programs, which require a collective effort among public health authorities.
Clinical and Applied Immunology Reviews 09/2005; 5(5):285-305. DOI:10.1016/j.cair.2005.08.001
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