A novel enzyme, citryl-CoA lyase, catalysing the second step of the citrate cleavage reaction in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6.
ABSTRACT A novel enzyme catalysing citryl-CoA cleavage to acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate was purified from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6, and designated citryl-CoA lyase (CCL). The citrate cleavage reaction in this organism proceeded by a unique set of two consecutive reactions: (i). citryl-CoA formation by citryl-CoA synthetase (CCS) and (ii). citryl-CoA cleavage by CCL. Purified CCL gave a single 30 kDa band in SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography indicated that the native state of the enzyme exists as a trimer (alpha(3)). Citryl-CoA lyase showed low citrate synthase (CS) activity. Using an oligonucleotide probe, the corresponding gene was cloned and sequenced. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant CCL was also purified. The CCL protein sequence showed similarity to the C-terminal regions of ATP citrate lyase (ACL) and CS sequences in the database. By further sequence comparisons, the phylogenetic relationship between CCS, CCL, ACL and CS was investigated.
Article: Community genomic and proteomic analyses of chemoautotrophic iron-oxidizing "Leptospirillum rubarum" (Group II) and "Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum" (Group III) bacteria in acid mine drainage biofilms.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We analyzed near-complete population (composite) genomic sequences for coexisting acidophilic iron-oxidizing Leptospirillum group II and III bacteria (phylum Nitrospirae) and an extrachromosomal plasmid from a Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, CA, acid mine drainage biofilm. Community proteomic analysis of the genomically characterized sample and two other biofilms identified 64.6% and 44.9% of the predicted proteins of Leptospirillum groups II and III, respectively, and 20% of the predicted plasmid proteins. The bacteria share 92% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and >60% of their genes, including integrated plasmid-like regions. The extrachromosomal plasmid carries conjugation genes with detectable sequence similarity to genes in the integrated conjugative plasmid, but only those on the extrachromosomal element were identified by proteomics. Both bacterial groups have genes for community-essential functions, including carbon fixation and biosynthesis of vitamins, fatty acids, and biopolymers (including cellulose); proteomic analyses reveal these activities. Both Leptospirillum types have multiple pathways for osmotic protection. Although both are motile, signal transduction and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins are more abundant in Leptospirillum group III, consistent with its distribution in gradients within biofilms. Interestingly, Leptospirillum group II uses a methyl-dependent and Leptospirillum group III a methyl-independent response pathway. Although only Leptospirillum group III can fix nitrogen, these proteins were not identified by proteomics. The abundances of core proteins are similar in all communities, but the abundance levels of unique and shared proteins of unknown function vary. Some proteins unique to one organism were highly expressed and may be key to the functional and ecological differentiation of Leptospirillum groups II and III.Applied and environmental microbiology 06/2009; 75(13):4599-615. · 3.69 Impact Factor
Article: Pathways of carbon assimilation and ammonia oxidation suggested by environmental genomic analyses of marine Crenarchaeota.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Marine Crenarchaeota represent an abundant component of oceanic microbiota with potential to significantly influence biogeochemical cycling in marine ecosystems. Prior studies using specific archaeal lipid biomarkers and isotopic analyses indicated that planktonic Crenarchaeota have the capacity for autotrophic growth, and more recent cultivation studies support an ammonia-based chemolithoautotrophic energy metabolism. We report here analysis of fosmid sequences derived from the uncultivated marine crenarchaeote, Cenarchaeum symbiosum, focused on the reconstruction of carbon and energy metabolism. Genes predicted to encode multiple components of a modified 3-hydroxypropionate cycle of autotrophic carbon assimilation were identified, consistent with utilization of carbon dioxide as a carbon source. Additionally, genes predicted to encode a near complete oxidative tricarboxylic acid cycle were also identified, consistent with the consumption of organic carbon and in the production of intermediates for amino acid and cofactor biosynthesis. Therefore, C. symbiosum has the potential to function either as a strict autotroph, or as a mixotroph utilizing both carbon dioxide and organic material as carbon sources. From the standpoint of energy metabolism, genes predicted to encode ammonia monooxygenase subunits, ammonia permease, urease, and urea transporters were identified, consistent with the use of reduced nitrogen compounds as energy sources fueling autotrophic metabolism. Homologues of these genes, recovered from ocean waters worldwide, demonstrate the conservation and ubiquity of crenarchaeal pathways for carbon assimilation and ammonia oxidation. These findings further substantiate the likely global metabolic importance of Crenarchaeota with respect to key steps in the biogeochemical transformation of carbon and nitrogen in marine ecosystems.PLoS Biology 05/2006; 4(4):e95. · 11.45 Impact Factor
Article: Evidence for autotrophic CO2 fixation via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle by members of the epsilon subdivision of proteobacteria.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Based on 16S rRNA gene surveys, bacteria of the epsilon subdivision of proteobacteria have been identified to be important members of microbial communities in a variety of environments, and quite a few have been demonstrated to grow autotrophically. However, no information exists on what pathway of autotrophic carbon fixation these bacteria might use. In this study, Thiomicrospira denitrificans and Candidatus Arcobacter sulfidicus, two chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers of the epsilon subdivision of proteobacteria, were examined for activities of the key enzymes of the known autotrophic CO(2) fixation pathways. Both organisms contained activities of the key enzymes of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, ATP citrate lyase, 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Furthermore, no activities of key enzymes of other CO(2) fixation pathways, such as the Calvin cycle, the reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway, and the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle, could be detected. In addition to the key enzymes, the activities of the other enzymes involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle could be measured. Sections of the genes encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of ATP citrate lyase could be amplified from both organisms. These findings represent the first direct evidence for the operation of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for autotrophic CO(2) fixation in epsilon-proteobacteria. Since epsilon-proteobacteria closely related to these two organisms are important in many habitats, such as hydrothermal vents, oxic-sulfidic interfaces, or oilfields, these results suggest that autotrophic CO(2) fixation via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle might be more important than previously considered.Journal of Bacteriology 06/2005; 187(9):3020-7. · 3.83 Impact Factor