Structure of 9-amino-[N-(2-dimethylamino)propyl]acridine-4-carboxamide bound to d(CGTACG)(2): a comparison of structures of d(CGTACG)(2) complexed with intercalatorsin the presence of cobalt.
ABSTRACT The structure of the complex formed between 9-amino-[N-(2-dimethylamino)propyl]acridine-4-carboxamide and d(CGTACG)(2) has been refined to a resolution of 1.55 A. The complex crystallized in space group C222. An asymmetric unit comprises two strands of DNA, one disordered drug molecule, two cobalt(II) ions, two magnesium ions and 32 water molecules. The DNA helices stack in continuous columns, with their four central base pairs adopting a B-like motif. The terminal G.C base pairs engage in different interactions. At one end of the duplex there is a CpG dinucleotide overlap modified by ligand intercalation and terminal cytosine exchange between symmetry-related duplexes. An intercalation complex is formed involving four DNA duplexes, four disordered ligand molecules and two pairs of base tetrads. The other end of the DNA is frayed, with the terminal guanine lying in the minor groove of the next duplex in the column. The structure is stabilized by guanine N7-cobalt(II) coordination. The structure is compared with previously published isomorphous structures of d(CGTACG)(2) complexed with intercalators in the presence of cobalt and it is concluded that the formation of this crystal form is primarily determined by DNA-DNA interactions and packing forces, rather than by special interactions between the ligand and the DNA. Given the nature of the ligands found in these complexes, the relevance of the quadruplex structure to the biological activity of those agents, known to be topoisomerase poisons, is questioned.
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ABSTRACT: Acridines and their derivatives are well-known probes for nucleic acids as well as being relevant in the field of drug development to establish new chemotherapeutic agents. We have shown from molecular modelling studies that 9-phenyl acridine and some of its derivatives can act as inhibitors of topoisomerase I and thus have potential to act as anticancer agents. Rational design of new compounds for therapeutics requires knowledge about their structural stability and interactions with various cellular macromolecules. In this regard it is important to know how these molecules would interact with DNA. Here we report the interaction of 9-phenyl acridine (ACPH) with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) based on various biophysical and molecular modelling studies. Spectrophotometric studies indicated that ACPH binds to CT-DNA. DNA melting studies revealed that binding of ACPH to CT-DNA resulted in a small increase in melting temperature, which is unlikely in case of classical intercalator; rather, it indicates external binding. Viscosity measurements show that ACPH exhibits groove binding. Competitive binding of ACPH to CT-DNA pre-bound to ethidium bromide (EB) showed slow quenching. Measurement of the binding constant of ACPH by fluorescent intercalator displacement (FID) assay corroborated the notion that there was groove binding. Molecular modelling studies also supported this finding. Results indicate that binding of ACPH is through partial intercalation in the minor groove of DNA.Biophysics of Structure and Mechanism 02/2010; 39(8):1243-9. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acridine group of dyes are well known in the field of development of probes for nucleic acid structure and conformational determination because of their relevance in the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents, footprinting agents and for gene manipulation in biotechnology and medicine. Here, we report the interaction of 9-N,N-dimethylaniline decahydroacridinedione (DMAADD), a new class of dye molecule with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) which has been studied extensively by means of traditional experimental and theoretical techniques. The changes in the base stacking of CT-DNA upon the binding of DMAADD are reflected in the circular dichroic (CD) spectral studies. Competitive binding study shows that the enhanced emission intensity of ethidium bromide (EB) in presence of DNA was quenched by the addition of DMAADD indicating that it displaces EB from its binding site in DNA and the apparent binding constant has been estimated to be (3.3+/-0.2)x10(5) M(-1). This competitive binding study and further fluorescence experiments reveal that DMAADD is a moderate binder of CT-DNA, while viscosity measurements show that the mode of binding is partial intercalation. Generally, one would expect increase in the melting temperature (T(m)) of DNA in presence of intercalators. Interestingly, an unusual decrease in melting temperature (DeltaT(m) of -4+/-0.2 degrees C) of DNA by the addition of DMAADD was observed. From our knowledge such a decreasing trend in melting point was not reported before for all the possible modes of binding. Molecular modeling gave the pictorial view of the binding model which clearly shows that of the various mode of binding, the dye prefers the major groove binding to the sites rich in GC residues and to the sites rich in AT residues it prefers intercalation mode of binding either through major or minor groove with the inclusion of the N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) group inside the double helix which has been stacked in between the bases, under physiological relevant pH of 7.5.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2007; 1760(12):1794-801. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In addition to the better known guanine-quadruplex, four-stranded nucleic acid structures can be formed by tetrads resulting from the association of Watson-Crick base pairs. When such association occurs through the minor groove side of the base pairs, the resulting structure presents distinctive features, clearly different from quadruplex structures containing planar G-tetrads. Although we have found this unusual DNA motif in a number of cyclic oligonucleotides, this is the first time that this DNA motif is found in linear oligonucleotides in solution, demonstrating that cyclization is not required to stabilize minor groove tetrads in solution. In this article, we have determined the solution structure of two linear octamers of sequence d(TGCTTCGT) and d(TCGTTGCT), and their cyclic analogue d , utilizing 2D NMR spectroscopy and restrained molecular dynamics. These three molecules self-associate forming symmetric dimers stabilized by a novel kind of minor groove C:G:G:C tetrad, in which the pattern of hydrogen bonds differs from previously reported ones. We hypothesize that these quadruplex structures can be formed by many different DNA sequences, but its observation in linear oligonucleotides is usually hampered by competing Watson-Crick duplexes.Nucleic Acids Research 04/2009; 37(10):3264-75. · 8.28 Impact Factor