Body mass index and cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific Region: an overview of 33 cohorts involving 310 000 participants.
ABSTRACT Few prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region are available relating body mass index (BMI) to the risks of stroke and ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Our objective was to assess the age-, sex-, and region-specific associations of BMI with cardiovascular disease using individual participant data from prospective studies in the Asia-Pacific region.
Studies were identified from literature searches, proceedings of meetings, and personal communication. All studies had at least 5000 person-years of follow-up. Hazard ratios were calculated from Cox models, stratified by sex and cohort, and adjusted for age at risk and smoking. The first 3 years of follow-up were excluded in order to reduce confounding due to disease at baseline.
A total of 33 cohort studies, including 310 283 participants, contributed 2 148 354 person-years of follow-up, during which 3332 stroke and 2073 IHD events were observed. There were continuous positive associations between baseline BMI and the risks of ischaemic stroke, haemorrhagic stroke, and IHD, with each 2 kg/m(2) lower BMI associated a 12% (95% CI: 9, 15%) lower risk of ischaemic stroke, 8% (95% CI: 4, 12%) lower risk in haemorrhagic stroke, and 11% (95% CI: 9, 13%) lower risk of IHD. The strengths of all associations were strongly age dependent, and there was no significant difference between Asian and Australasian cohorts.
This overview provides the most reliable estimates to date of the associations between BMI and cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific region, and the first direct comparisons within the region. Continuous relationships of approximately equal strength are evident in both Asian and Australasian populations. These results indicate considerable potential for cardiovascular disease reduction with population-wide lowering of BMI.
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ABSTRACT: To determine how change in BMI over 8 years is associated with risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among middle aged men. Prospective cohort study among 13,230 healthy men (aged 51.6+/-8.7 years) in the Physicians' Health Study. BMI was collected at baseline in 1982 and after 8 years, at which time follow-up began. Subsequent CVD events were collected and confirmed through March 31, 2005. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated BMI at 8 years and risk of CVD, 8-year change in BMI and risk of CVD, and whether change in BMI added prognostic information after the consideration of BMI at 8 years. 1308 major CVD events occurred over 13.5 years. A higher BMI at year 8 was associated with an increased risk of CVD. Compared to a stable BMI (+/-0.5 kg/m(2)), a 0.5-2.0 kg/m(2) increase had a multivariable-adjusted RR of 1.00 (0.86-1.16). A >/=2.0 kg/m(2) increase had a multivariable-adjusted RR of 1.39 (1.16-1.68), however further adjustment for BMI reduced the RR to 1.00 (0.81-1.23). A decrease in BMI had a multivariable RR of 1.23 (1.07-1.42) which was unaffected by adjustment for BMI at 8 years. A higher BMI and a rising BMI were both associated with an increased risk of CVD, however an increasing BMI did not add prognostic information once current BMI was considered. In contrast, a declining BMI was associated with an increased risk of CVD independent of current BMI.Preventive Medicine 12/2007; 45(6):436-41. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.06.022 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although colorectal cancer is one of the leading malignancies worldwide, there are few data on aetiological relationships from the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, a collaborative study was conducted involving over half a million subjects from 33 cohort studies in the region. Age-adjusted death rates from colorectal cancer, over an average of 6.8 years follow-up, were 12 and 14 per 100,000 person-years among Asian women and men, respectively; corresponding values in Australasia were 31 and 41. Height was strongly associated with death from colorectal cancer: an extra 5 cm of height was associated with 10% (95%confidence interval, 3% - 18% additional risk, after adjustment for other factors. Smoking increased risk by 43% (9% - 88%), although no significant dose-response relationship was discerned (p>0.05). Other significant (p <0.05) risk factors were body mass index and lack of physical activity. There was no significant effect on colorectal cancer mortality for alcohol consumption, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose or diabetes, although the latter conferred a notable 26% additional risk. Height may be a biomarker for some currently unknown genetic, or environmental, risk factors that are related both to skeletal growth and mutanogenesis. Understanding such mechanisms could provide opportunities for novel preventive and therapeutic intervention.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 8(2):191-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mortality from cancer of the prostate is increasing in the Asia-Pacific, when much of this region is undergoing a transition to a Western lifestyle. The role that lifestyle factors play in prostate cancer appears limited, but existing data mainly are from the West. We conducted an individual participant data analysis of 24 cohort studies involving 320,852 men (83% in Asia). Cox proportional hazard models were used to quantify associations between risk factors and mortality from prostate cancer. There were 308 deaths from prostate cancer (14% in Asia) during 2.1 million person-years of follow-up. The age-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval; CI) for men with body mass index (BMI) 28 kg/m2 or more, compared with below 25, was 1.55 (1.12 - 2.16); no such significant relationship was found for height or waist circumference. The BMI result was unchanged after adjustment for other variables, was consistent between Asia and Australia/New Zealand (ANZ) and did not differ with age. There was no significant relationship with diabetes, glucose or total cholesterol (p > or = 0.18). Smoking, alone, showed different effects in the two regions, possibly due to the relative immaturity of the smoking epidemic in Asia. In ANZ, the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for an extra 5 cigarettes per day was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.03 - 1.22), whereas in Asia it was 0.77 (0.56 - 1.05). Body size is an apparently important determinant of prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific. Evidence of an adverse effect of smoking is conclusive only in the predominantly Caucasian parts of the region.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 8(2):199-205. · 1.50 Impact Factor