Because measles-specific antibody titer after vaccination is lower than after natural infection, there is concern that vaccinated persons may gradually lose protection from measles. To examine the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody, participants of a vaccine study in 1971, with documentation of antibody 1-7 years after vaccination, were followed up in 1997-1999 to determine the presence and titer of measles antibody. Of the 56 participants (77% were 2-dose recipients), all had antibodies detected by the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) antibody assay an average of 26-33 years after the first or second dose of measles vaccine; 92% had a PRN titer considered protective (>1 : 120). Baseline hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer in 1971 strongly predicted follow-up PRN antibody titer (P<.001). Persistence of antibody in these primarily 2-dose recipients supports the current elimination strategy to achieve and sustain high population immunity with a 2-dose schedule.
"Future studies will have to incorporate patients with other conditions for comparison. On the other hand, antibodies responses to viral infections and vaccines such as measles, appear to last for many years [15,16] although possibly sustained by persistent cryptic viral particles . Interestingly, malaria chemoprophylaxis was associated with a slower rate of decay of antibodies to a meningococcal vaccine among Gambia children  suggesting that acute malaria might affect the longevity of antibodies universally. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data suggest that antibody responses to malaria parasites merozoite antigens are generally short-lived and this has implications for serological studies and malaria vaccine designs. However, precise data on the kinetics of these responses is lacking.
IgG1 and IgG3 responses to five recombinant Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens (MSP-119, MSP-2 type A and B, AMA-1 ectodomain and EBA-175 region II) among Kenyan children were monitored using ELISA for 12 weeks after an acute episode of malaria and their half-lives estimated using an exponential decay model.
The responses peaked mainly at week 1 and then decayed rapidly to very low levels within 6 weeks. Estimation of the half-lives of 40 IgG1 responses yielded a mean half-life of 9.8 days (95% CI: 7.6-12.0) while for 16 IgG3 responses it was 6.1 days (95% CI: 3.7-8.4), periods that are shorter than those normally described for the catabolic half-life of these antibody subclasses.
This study indicates antibodies against merozoite antigens have very short half-lives and this has to be taken into account when designing serological studies and vaccines based on the antigens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to summarize important papers concerning measles disease and measles-containing vaccines published in 2004.
Endemic measles has been successfully controlled in the Americas and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. This has been achieved with a high uptake of two doses of a measles-containing vaccine. Even in industrialized countries, where vaccine uptake is poor, for example Japan, the disease is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Vaccine failure is predominantly due to primary vaccine failure, which may, in part, be genetic in origin and related to HLA type. Measles-containing vaccines have been shown to be associated with febrile convulsions, but there is no strong evidence of a link with atopy. There is considerable evidence that there is no causal relationship with autistic disorders. In spite of this, many parents and some professionals have concerns about the safety of the vaccines, which may lead to their underuse.
It is possible to eliminate measles with a high uptake of two doses of measles-containing vaccine, but concerns about safety persist and need to be tackled. More research is required into how to do this effectively and also to elucidate the causes of vaccine failure.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 07/2005; 18(3):229-34. DOI:10.1097/01.qco.0000168383.93647.47 · 5.01 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.