Adiponectin receptors gene expression and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic Mexican Americans with or without a family history of Type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT The recent discovery of two adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the insulin-sensitising effect of adiponectin. The aim of this study was to determine for the first time whether skeletal muscle AdipoR1 and/or AdipoR2 gene expression levels are associated with insulin resistance.
Using RT-PCR and northern analysis we measured AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 gene expression in skeletal muscle from healthy Mexican Americans with normal glucose tolerance who had (n=8) or did not have (n=10) a family history of Type 2 diabetes.
Gene expression profiling indicated that the AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 isoforms are highly expressed in human skeletal muscle, unlike in mice where AdipoR2 expression was highest in the liver, and AdipoR1 was highest in skeletal muscle. In the study subjects, the expression levels of AdipoR1 (p=0.004) and AdipoR2 (p=0.04), as well as plasma adiponectin concentration (p=0.03) were lower in people with a family history of Type 2 diabetes than in those with no family history of the disease. Importantly, the expression levels of both receptors correlated positively with insulin sensitivity (r=0.64, p=0.004 and r=0.47, p=0.048 respectively).
Collectively, these data indicate that both isoforms of the adiponectin receptor play a role in the insulin-sensitising effect of adiponectin.
Article: Associations of testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin with adipose tissue hormones in midlife women.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Regulators of adipose tissue hormones remain incompletely understood, but may include sex hormones. As adipose tissue hormones have been shown to contribute to numerous metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, understanding their regulation in midlife women is of clinical importance. Therefore, we assessed the associations between testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) with leptin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and the soluble form of the leptin receptor (sOB-R) in healthy midlife women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were performed using data from 1,881 midlife women (average age 52.6 (±2.7) years) attending the sixth Annual follow-up visit of the multiethnic Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. RESULTS: T was weakly negatively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = -0.12 and r = -0.10, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and positively associated with leptin (r = 0.17; P < 0.001). SHBG was more strongly and positively associated with both HMW adiponectin and sOB-R (r = 0.29 and r = 0.24, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and more strongly and negatively associated with leptin (r = -0.27; P < 0.001). Adjustment for fat mass, insulin resistance, or waist circumference only partially diminished associations with HMW adiponectin and sOB-R, but attenuated associations with leptin. In conclusion, in these midlife women, lower SHBG values, and to a lesser extent, higher T levels, were associated with lower, or less favorable, levels of adiponectin and sOB-R, independent of fat mass. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that variation in these adipose hormones resulting from lower SHBG levels, and possibly, though less likely, greater androgenicity, may contribute to susceptibility for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes during midlife in women.Obesity 03/2013; 21(3):629-636. · 4.28 Impact Factor
Article: Differential expression of novel adiponectin receptor-1 transcripts in skeletal muscle of subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) expression in skeletal muscle has been suggested to play an important role in insulin resistance and diabetes. We aimed at evaluating the presence of novel AdiopR1 splice variants in human muscle and their regulation under physiological and pathophysiological states. AdipoR1 5'UTR mRNA transcripts, predicted from bioinformatics data, were evaluated in fetal and adult human tissues. Expression and function of the identified transcripts were assessed in cultured human skeletal muscle cells and in muscle biopsies obtained from individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (n = 49). Screening of potential AdipoR1 5'UTR splice variants revealed a novel highly abundant muscle transcript (R1T3) in addition to the previously described transcript (R1T1). Unlike R1T1, R1T3 expression was significantly increased during fetal development and myogenesis, paralleled with increased AdipoR1 protein expression. The 5'UTR of R1T3 was found to contain upstream open reading frames that repress translation of downstream coding sequences. Conversely, AdipoR1 3'UTR was associated with enhanced translation efficiency during myoblast-myotube differentiation. A marked reduction in muscle expression of R1T3, R1T1, and R1T3-to-R1T1 ratio was observed in individuals with type 2 diabetes compared with expression levels of NGT subjects, paralleled with decreased expression of the differentiation marker myogenin. Among NGT subjects, R1T3 expression was positively correlated with insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that AdipoR1 receptor expression in human skeletal muscle is subjected to posttranscriptional regulation, including alternative splicing and translational control. These mechanisms play an important role during myogenesis and may be important for whole-body insulin sensitivity.Diabetes 02/2011; 60(3):936-46. · 8.29 Impact Factor
Article: Increased abundance of the adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif (APPL1) in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes: evidence for altered adiponectin signalling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The adiponectin signalling pathway is largely unknown, but recently the adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif (APPL1), has been shown to interact directly with adiponectin receptor (ADIPOR)1. APPL1 is present in C2C12 myoblasts and mouse skeletal muscle, but its presence in human skeletal muscle has not been investigated. Samples from type 2 diabetic, and lean and non-diabetic obese participants were analysed by: immunoprecipitation and western blot; HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis; peak area analysis by MS; HPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS analysis; and RT-PCR analysis of APPL1 mRNA. Immunoprecipitation and western blot indicated a band specific to APPL1. Tryptic digestion and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis of whole-muscle homogenate APPL1 unambiguously identified APPL1 with 56% sequence coverage. Peak area analysis by MS validated western blot results, showing APPL1 levels to be significantly increased in type 2 diabetic and obese as compared with lean participants. Targeted phosphopeptide analysis by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS showed that APPL1 was phosphorylated specifically on Ser(401). APPL1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in obese and type 2 diabetic participants as compared with lean participants. After bariatric surgery in morbidly obese participants with subsequent weight loss, skeletal muscle APPL1 abundance was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in association with an increase in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.01), increased levels of ADIPOR1 (p < 0.05) and increased muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation (p < 0.05). APPL1 abundance is significantly higher in type 2 diabetic muscle; APPL1 is phosphorylated in vivo on Ser(401). Improvements in hyperglycaemia and hypoadiponectinaemia following weight loss are associated with reduced skeletal muscle APPL1, and increased plasma adiponectin levels and muscle AMPK phosphorylation.Diabetologia 05/2011; 54(8):2122-31. · 6.81 Impact Factor