Simvastatin inhibits leukocyte accumulation and vascular permeability in the retinas of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
ABSTRACT Leukocytes play important roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Recently, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have been reported to exert various effects in addition to their lipid-lowering ability. We investigated the effects of simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, on leukocyte-induced diabetic changes in retinas. Diabetes was induced in Long-Evans rats with streptozotocin, and simvastatin administration was begun immediately after the induction of diabetes. Two weeks of treatment with simvastatin suppressed significantly the number of leukocytes adhering to retinal vessel endothelium and the number of leukocytes accumulated in the retinal tissue by 72.9% and 41.0%, respectively (P < 0.01). The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the CD18 (the common beta-chain of ICAM-1 ligands) were both suppressed with simvastatin. The amount of vascular endothelial growth factor in the retina was attenuated in the simvastatin-treated group. To evaluate the effects of simvastatin on leukocyte-induced endothelial cell damage, vascular permeability in the retina was measured with fluorescein-labeled dextran. Treatment with simvastatin markedly reduced retinal permeability (P = 0.014). This suggests that simvastatin attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and subsequent blood-retinal barrier breakdown via suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced ICAM-1 expression in the diabetic retina. Simvastatin may thus be useful in the prevention of diabetic retinopathy.
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ABSTRACT: Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, has been shown to lower serum cholesterol levels in clinical use. Moreover, statins exert beneficial effects in vascular diseases by inhibition of leukocyte rolling, adherence, and transmigration. The aim of this study was to determine if pretreatment with simvastatin attenuates Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin-induced increase in leukocyte-endothelial interactions during exotoxemia. The effects of simvastatin on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were observed by intravital microscopy in the rat mesenteric microcirculation. Simvastatin (50 or 100 microg/kg) was administered 18 hours before the study. Activation of microcirculation was induced by bolus administration of 40 microg/kg S aureus alpha-toxin. Exotoxemia resulted in a significant and time-dependent increase in leukocyte rolling, adherence, and transmigration of leukocytes as well as P-selectin expression on the intestinal vascular endothelium. Pretreatment with simvastatin significantly inhibited exotoxin-induced leukocyte rolling from 71+/-10 to 14+/-4.7 cells/min (P<0.01) and adherence from 14+/-3.5 to 0.4+/-0.2 cells (P<0.01). In addition, simvastatin pretreatment significantly inhibited transmigration of leukocytes from 10.5+/-1.2 to 4.2+/-0.9 (P<0.05) cells. Immunohistochemical detection of endothelial cell adhesion molecule P-selectin showed a 50% decrease in endothelial cell surface expression after simvastatin treatment. Furthermore, simvastatin treatment resulted in enhanced expression of endothelial cell NO synthase III in the intestinal microcirculation. These results demonstrate that simvastatin interferes with exotoxin-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions, which may be relevant in various infectious diseases. Statin treatment may offer a new therapeutic strategy for these clinical conditions.Circulation 10/2002; 106(16):2104-10. · 14.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy remains a leading cause of irreversible blindness. A critical early pathology in the disease is the adhesion of leukocytes to the retinal vasculature, a process that occurs, in part, via intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Once leukocyte adhesion occurs, endothelial cell injury ensues, as does blood-retinal barrier breakdown. Here we show that angiopoietin-1 can prevent and reverse these diabetic retinal vascular changes in both new and established diabetes. Angiopoietin-1, when given intravitreally to newly diabetic rats, normalized retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA and protein levels, leading to reductions in leukocyte adhesion, endothelial cell injury, and blood-retinal barrier breakdown. When an adenovirus coding for angiopoietin-1 was given systemically to mice with established diabetes, it similarly inhibited leukocyte adhesion and endothelial cell injury and blood-retinal barrier breakdown. These changes coincided with reductions in retinal eNOS, nitric oxide, Akt (protein kinase B), and MAP kinase activity, known mediators of VEGF bioactivity and leukocyte adhesion. When endogenous VEGF bioactivity was inhibited with a soluble Flt-1/Fc chimera, retinal Akt kinase activity was significantly reduced in vivo. Taken together, these data document new vascular and anti-inflammatory bioactivities for angiopoietin-1 and identify it as the first naturally occurring protein that directly protects the retinal vasculature in diabetes.American Journal Of Pathology 06/2002; 160(5):1683-93. · 4.89 Impact Factor
Article: Hmg-CoA reductase inhibitor modulates monocyte-endothelial cell interaction under physiological flow conditions in vitro: involvement of Rho GTPase-dependent mechanism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been reported to exert actions independent of their lipid-lowering effects. To critically assess the effects of statins on monocyte-endothelial cell interactions, we used an in vitro model that mimicked physiological flow conditions. Monocytic U937 cells were incubated in the presence of cerivastatin for 48 hours. Adhesive interactions of statin-treated U937 cells were then analyzed by use of activated (interleukin-1beta 10 U/mL, 4 hours) human umbilical vein endothelial cells in an in vitro flow apparatus. Flow cytometric analysis of adhesion molecules and measurement of F-actin content in U937 cells were performed before and after statin treatment. Preincubation with cerivastatin significantly decreased U937 firm adhesion to activated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, whereas U937 rolling was not decreased. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed downregulation of U937 surface expression of CD11a, CD18, and VLA4 after statin treatment. Cerivastatin significantly reduced F-actin content in U937 cells and inhibited RhoA translocation, whereas preincubation with C3 exoenzyme reduced U937 adhesion under flow. Cerivastatin reduces monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium under physiological flow conditions via downregulation of integrin adhesion molecules and inhibition of actin polymerization via RhoA inactivation. Our findings have important implications for the lipid-independent effects of statins.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 08/2001; 21(7):1165-71. · 6.37 Impact Factor