Effect of calcineurin inhibitors on extracellular matrix turnover in isolated human glomeruli.
ABSTRACT Although chronic cyclosporine toxicity is mainly characterized by tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, glomerular injury with expansion of mesangial matrix and sclerosis is not uncommon. Tacrolimus is a newer calcineurin inhibitor that has been used in renal transplant recipients as primary or rescue therapy. Clinical trials suggest an improved long-term graft survival among patients treated with tacrolimus. Recently we have shown that tacrolimus and cyclosporine have similar effects on extracellular matrix turnover in cultured cells. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of the calcineurin inhibitors on whole glomeruli extracellular matrix turnover.
Human glomeruli isolated from kidney biopsies just before transplantation were incubated with culture media containing either cyclosporine (200 ng/mL) or tacrolimus (10 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Glomeruli incubated only with culture medium were used as control.
The expressions of (alpha2)IV collagen, metalloprotease 9 (MMP9), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases 2 (TIMP-2), and TGFbeta were evaluated by in situ reverse transcription and polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). beta-actin was used as a control gene. Cyclosporine (but not tacrolimus) increased the expression of (alpha2)IV collagen and TIMP2 in isolated glomeruli. TGF-beta was markedly increased by cyclosporine. MMP9 expression was not affected by the calcineurin inhibitors. By light microscopy kidney biopsies did not show pathologic changes.
Cyclosporine treatment modulates extracellular matrix turnover in isolated human glomeruli, inducing an imbalance between synthesis and degradation. This effect, not observed in tacrolimus-treated human glomeruli, may induce the extracellular matrix deposition and sclerosis characteristic of chronic cyclosporine toxicity.
- SourceAvailable from: Iolanda Mazzucchelli[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nephrotoxicity, accelerated atherosclerosis, and graft vascular disease are common complications of cyclosporine long-term treatment characterized by a wide disruption of organ architecture with increased interstitial areas and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). How cyclosporine induces these changes is not clear, but it is conceivable that they are the sum of changes induced at the cell level. We studied the effects of cyclosporine on human endothelial (HEC), epithelial (HK-2), and fibroblast (MRC5) cells. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting, apoptosis and collagen production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and nitric oxide by measuring the concentration of nitrite/nitrate in the cell supernatant. (alpha1)I and (alpha2)IV collagen, matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP9), and tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1) mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Proteolytic activity was evaluated by zymography. Cyclosporine showed a marked antiproliferative and proapoptotic effect on endothelial and epithelial cells. Fibroblast growth was not affected by cyclosporine. Nitric oxide was up-regulated by cyclosporine in epithelial cells and fibroblasts but not in endothelial cells. (alpha1)I and (alpha2)IV collagen synthesis was increased in cyclosporine-treated endothelial and epithelial cells, respectively. Proteolytic activity was increased in endothelial and epithelial cells. TIMP-1 mRNA was up-regulated by cyclosporine in fibroblasts. Our results demonstrate that cyclosporine exhibits an antiproliferative effect on endothelial and epithelial cells. This effect is associated with induction of apoptosis probably via nitric oxide up-regulation in epithelial cell cultures. Cyclosporine treatment induces ECM accumulation by increasing collagen synthesis in endothelial and epithelial cells and reducing its degradation by up-regulating TIMP-1 expression in fibroblasts. We conclude that cyclosporine affects cell types differently and that the disruption of organ architecture is the result of multiple effects at the cell level.Kidney International 08/2000; 58(1):123-30. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction is one of the most common and threatening complications in heart transplant recipients. Even if ciclosporin seems to play a central role in inducing renal damage, other factors may concur or predispose to renal injury. In order to identify factors responsible for renal dysfunction, we retrospectively studied a cohort of 114 cardiac transplant recipients during a follow-up period of at least 3 years. The patients had a normal renal function before and 0.5 months after heart transplantation. Doubling of baseline serum creatinine or attainment of serum creatinine steadily above 176.8 micromol/l (2.0 mg/dl) was used as criterion to define the end-point renal dysfunction. A series of clinical and laboratory variables were obtained from the patients' charts at different time intervals, and their prognostic value for the occurrence of renal dysfunction was calculated by Cox proportional hazards models. 23 out of 114 patients reached the end point after a median time period of 21 months. High serum triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, ciclosporin, urea, glucose, and hemoglobin levels were shown to be associated with the development of renal dysfunction. Four variables, i.e., triglyceride, ciclosporin, urea, and alkaline phosphatase, had an independent prognostic value. Our results confirm a role for ciclosporin in inducing renal dysfunction and identify hyperlipidemia and an increased plasma urea level as risk factors for renal dysfunction in heart transplant recipients.Nephron 02/2000; 84(1):21-8. · 13.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclosporin is associated with significant chronic nephrotoxicity, manifest in the long term mainly as renal fibrosis. There have been claims that tacrolimus is a less fibrotic drug than cyclosporin, and this study was designed to determine the effect of the two drugs on the expression of fibrosis-associated genes. Male Wistar rats underwent clamping of the right renal pedicle for 45 min together with left nephrectomy; this model has previously been shown to be associated with upregulation of fibrosis-associated genes. Experimental groups (six animals per group) received cyclosporin A 10 mg/kg daily, tacrolimus 0.2 mg/kg daily or no treatment. Animals were killed at 16 weeks, and the renal cortical expression of fibrosis-associated genes was studied by means of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Tacrolimus-treated animals developed significantly less proteinuria and had lower serum creatinine levels than those receiving cyclosporin. Tacrolimus administration also significantly reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1, both the products of genes associated with fibrosis. Although cyclosporin treatment reduced levels of the matrix-degrading enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and MMP-9, this was not statistically significant. Tacrolimus has less nephrotoxicity than cyclosporin in this model. It also appears to have less fibrogenic potential, and this may have implications for the choice of long-term immunosuppressant in renal transplantation.British Journal of Surgery 12/2000; 87(11):1563-8. · 4.84 Impact Factor