Distribution of Phthalate Esters in a Marine Aquatic Food Web: Comparison to Polychlorinated Biphenyls
ABSTRACT Dialkyl phthalate esters (DPEs) are widely used chemicals, with over 4 million tonnes being produced worldwide each year. On the basis of their octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow), which range from 10(1.61) for dimethyl phthalate to 10(9.46) for di-iso-decyl phthalate, certain phthalate esters have the potential to bioconcentrate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. However, there are no reported field studies on the trophodynamics of phthalate ester in aquatic food webs. This study reports the distribution of 8 individual phthalate esters (i.e., dimethyl, diethyl, di-isobutyl, di-n-butyl, butylbenzyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), di-n-octyl, and di-n-nonyl) and 5 commercial isomeric mixtures (i.e., di-iso-hexyl (C6), di-iso-heptyl (C7), di-iso-octyl (C8), di-iso-nonyl (C9), and di-iso-decyl (C10)) in a marine aquatic food web. DPE concentrations were determined in 18 marine species, representing approximately 4 trophic levels. Co-analysis of DPEs and 6 PCB congeners (i.e., PCB-18, 99, 118, 180, 194, and 209) in all samples produced a direct comparison of the bioaccumulation behavior of PCBs and DPEs. Lipid equivalent concentrations of the PCBs increased with increasing trophic position and stable isotope ratios (delta15N). The Food-Web Magnification Factor (FWMF) of the PCB congeners ranged from 1.8 to 9.5. Lipid equivalent concentrations of low and intermediate molecular weight DPEs (i.e., C1-C7 DPEs: dimethyl, diethyl, di-iso-butyl, di-n-butyl, benzylbutyl, and C6 and C7 isomers) did not exhibit statistically significant trends with trophic position or stable nitrogen isotope ratios (delta15N) in the food web and FWMFs were not significantly different from 1. Lipid equivalent concentrations of the high-molecular-weight DPEs (i.e., C8-C10 DPEs: di(2-ethylhexyl), di-n-octyl, di-n-nonyl, C8, C9, and C10) declined significantly with increasing trophic position and stable isotope ratios (delta15N), producing FWMFs between 0.25 and 0.48. These results show that all DPEs tested did not biomagnify in the studied aquatic food web whereas PCBs did biomagnify.
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- "This observation is in accordance with previous studies showing the importance of sediment as a sink for these PE, as frequently demonstrated in lake, river, and marine environments (Klamer et al., 2005; Lin et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2014; Zeng et al., 2008). Further, and in accordance with this assumption, several studies also showed that levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP), such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), in biota parallel their habitat and metabolic ability (Mackintosh et al., 2004; 2006; Wan et al., 2005). "
ABSTRACT: The occurrence of phthalate esters (PE) was examined in biota, ambient water, and sediments of two man-made lakes (Asejire and Eleyele) in southwestern Nigeria. Five fish species (Tilapia zillii, Hepsetus odoe, Parachanna obscura, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, and Mormyrus rume) were analyzed for PE levels and used for calculating bioconcentration factors (BCF) and biota– sediment accumulation factors (BSAF). In addition, measured PE levels were thereafter used to calculate the phthalate pollution index (PPI) in biota and the environment. At both lakes, all sampled species had k-factor > 1, showing apparently normal growth and health condition. Higher PE levels were found in sediments compared with water at both lakes, with a pattern showing that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was predominant PE. While there were no unique patterns of PE concentrations in both lakes, differences were observed in organ concentration patterns that were evident at both lakes. For T. zillii, the BSAF was higher for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) compared to diethyl phthalate (DEP) and lowest for DEHP. The concentration pattern demonstrated that DBP concentrated more in gills (BCF: 6.7), while DEHP concentrated more in liver (BCF: 15.2) of T. zillii at Asejire. At Eleyele, T. zillii liver and gills concentrated less DEP and DEHP. The PPI value was significantly higher in sediment with respective values of 0.27 and 0.44 at Asejire and Eleyele lakes compared with water with respective values of 0.1 and 0.18 at Asejire and Eleyele lakes. Overall, our findings suggest a broader environmental and human health implication of high PE levels in these lakes, since they provide vast water volumes that are used for municipal domestic water supply. Further, these lakes support intense artisanal fisheries, representing significant sources of aquatic food resources for neighboring communities.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 06/2015; 78(12):761-777. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2015.1030487 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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- "PAEs are not chemically bound to the plastic polymer and can therefore migrate from the plastics into the environment via different pathways, such as hydrolysis (Jonsson et al., 2006), photodegradation (Zhao et al., 2004), microbial degradation (Jonsson et al., 2003), and adsorption (Ayranci and Bayram, 2005). Studies showed that PAEs are ubiquitous in the environment, and they have been detected in sediments (Huang et al., 2008), air (David et al., 2003), surface water (Furtmann, 1994), and marine and aquatic organisms (Verma et al., 1998; Yuan et al., 2002; Mackintosh et al., 2004). Notably, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethyl- hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were commonly detected in the freshwaters of the Netherlands, with concentrations up to 1.88 and 4.96 mg/L, respectively (Peijnenbrurg and Struijs, 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the antioxidant responses to nine phthalates (PAEs) in the liver of the goldfish Carassius auratus. The fish were injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of each PAE for 1 day and 4, 8, and 15 days. The potential biotoxicity of the PAEs were examined using the antioxidase and lipid peroxide indices. We determined that the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels displayed different trends following prolonged treatment, suggesting that metabolism generated either less toxic or more active substances. Based on the intensity of enzymes inhibition, MDA content, and the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR), the toxicity order was determined as follows: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) > diphenyl phthalate (DPP) > butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > diallyl phthalate (DAP) > dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) > dimethyl phthalate (DMP) > di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). In particular, DBP, which exhibited significant inhibition of enzyme activity and the greatest decrease in MDA content, may be a highly toxic contaminant. Furthermore, our results suggest that the IBR may be a general marker of pollution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.Environmental Toxicology 03/2014; 30(10). DOI:10.1002/tox.21985 · 3.20 Impact Factor
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- "Unlike the concentrations of most other trace metals, the concentrations of Hg, especially MeHg, increase along the marine food chain through biomagnification. Consequently, d 15 N has been used to estimate the biomagnification of Hg in marine and aquatic food webs in the last decade (Mackintosh et al., 2004). Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of THg and MeHg concentrations in fish are generally influenced by fish size (Mason et al., 2006; Kehrig et al., 2008), trophic position (as indicated by d 15 N) (Amlund et al., 2007; Mergler et al., 2007; Sharma et al., 2008), and life history (Swanson et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: We conducted a large-scale investigation of methylmercury (MeHg) in a total of 628 marine wild fish covering 46 different species collected from the South China Sea between 2008 and 2009. Biological and ecological characteristics such as size (length and wet weight), feeding habit, habitat, and stable isotope (δ(15)N) were examined to explain MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish and their geographical distribution. MeHg levels in the muscle tissues of the 628 individuals ranged from 0.010 to 1.811μg/gdrywt. Log10MeHg concentration was significantly related to their length and wet weight. Feeding habit and habitat were the primary factors influencing MeHg bioaccumulation. Demersal fish were more likely to be contaminated with MeHg than the epipelagic and mesopelagic varieties. Linear relationships were obtained between Log10(MeHg) and δ(15)N only for one location, indicating that biomagnification was site-specific. Results from this study suggest that dietary preference and trophic structure were the main factors affecting MeHg bioaccumulation in marine fish from the South China Sea.Marine Pollution Bulletin 10/2013; 77(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.09.009 · 2.99 Impact Factor