Behavioral Characterization of the Novel GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulator GS39783 (N,N′-Dicyclopentyl-2-methylsulfanyl-5-nitro-pyrimidine-4,6-diamine): Anxiolytic-Like Activity without Side Effects Associated with Baclofen or Benzodiazepines
ABSTRACT The role of GABAB receptors in various behavioral processes has been largely defined using the prototypical GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. However, baclofen induces sedation, hypothermia and muscle relaxation, which may interfere with its use in behavioral paradigms. Although there is much evidence for a role of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the pathophysiology of anxiety, the role of GABAB receptors in these disorders is largely unclear. We recently identified GS39783 (N,N'-dicyclopentyl-2-methylsulfanyl-5-nitro-pyrimidine-4,6-diamine) as a selective allosteric positive modulator at GABAB receptors. The aim of the present study was to broadly characterize the effects of GS39783 in well-validated rodent models for motor activity, cognition, and anxiety. The following tests were included: locomotor activity in rats and mice, rotarod and traction tests (including determinations of core temperature) in mice, passive avoidance in mice and rats, elevated plus maze in rats, elevated zero maze in mice and rats, stress-induced hyperthermia in mice, and pentobarbital- and ethanol-induced sleep in mice. Unlike baclofen and/or the benzodiazepine chlordiazepoxide, GS39783 had no effect in any of the tests for locomotion, cognition, temperature, or narcosis. Most interestingly, GS39783 had anxiolytic-like effects in all the tests used. Overall, the data obtained here suggest that positive modulation of GABAB receptors may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for the development of anxiolytics, with a superior side effect profile to both baclofen and benzodiazepines.
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ABSTRACT: Diverse preclinical studies exploiting the modulation of the GABAergic and/or glutamatergic system in brain via metabotropic receptors suggest their potential therapeutic utility. GS39783 and CDPPB, a positive allosteric modulators of GABAB and mGlu5 receptors, were previously shown to reverse behavioral phenotypes in animal models thought to mimic selected (predominantly positive) symptoms of schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated the activity of selected GABAB (GS39783 and CGP7930) and mGlu5 (CDPPB) positive allosteric modulators. We focused mainly on the aspects of their efficacy in the models of negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. We used modified swim test, social interactions (models of negative symptoms) and novel object recognition (model of cognitive disturbances). The activity of the compounds was also tested in haloperidol-induced catalepsy test. The mutual interaction between GABAB/mGlu5 ligands was investigated as well. In the second part of the study, DHPG-induced PI hydrolysis in the presence of GABAB receptor antagonist (SKF97541), and SKF97541-induced inhibition of cAMP formationin the presence of DHPG, were performed. Both mGlu5 and GABAB receptor modulators effectively reversed MK-801-induced deficits in behavioral models of schizophrenia. Moreover, the concomitant administration of sub-effective doses of CDPPB and GS39783, induced a clear antipsychotic-like effect in all the procedures used, except DOI-induced head twitches. The concomitant administration of group I mGlu and GABAB agonists did not displayed any synergistic effects in vitro. Summing up, an activation of both types of receptor may be a promising mechanism for the development of novel antipsychotic drugs, efficacious towards positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Neurochemistry International 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2015.03.010 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: γ-Aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptors and their ligands are postulated as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of several brain disorders, including drug dependence. Over the past fifteen years positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have emerged that enhance the effects of GABA at GABAB receptors and which may have therapeutic effects similar to those of agonists but with superior side-effect profiles. This review summarizes current preclinical evidence supporting a role of GABAB receptor PAMs in drug addiction in several paradigms with relevance to reward processes and drug abuse liability. Extensive behavioral research in recent years has indicated that PAMs of GABAB receptors may have a therapeutic efficacy in cocaine, nicotine, amphetamine and alcohol dependence. The magnitude of the effects observed are similar to that of the clinically approved drug baclofen, an agonist at GABAB receptors. Moreover, given that anxiolytic effects are also reported with such ligands they may also benefit in mitigating the withdrawal from drugs of abuse. In summary, a wealth of data now supports the benefits of GABAB receptor PAMs and clinical validation is now warranted.Neuropharmacology 06/2014; 88. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.06.016 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A promising pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorders has been positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor B (GABAB R) since GABAB R PAMs reduce ethanol drinking and self-administration in rodents. The current studies investigated a novel, selective GABAB R PAM, ADX71441, in comparison to naltrexone in a protocol of ethanol binge-like drinking, drinking-in-the-dark (DID), and in a model of long-term, excessive drinking, intermittent access to ethanol (IA). Male C57BL/6 J mice were given doses of ADX71441 (3, 10, 30 mg/kg, p.o.) before the fourth test day of repeated DID access to 20 % ethanol. Another group of mice had a history of 4 weeks of IA before ADX71441 (3, 10, 17 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment. The opioid antagonist, naltrexone (0.1, 1, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered to different groups of mice in both protocols as a positive control. In both DID and IA protocols, ADX71441 showed a selective and potent reduction of ethanol drinking, but not water drinking, while naltrexone had a more modest and transient effect on reducing ethanol drinking. The long-lasting effect of ADX71441 agrees with its plasma pharmacokinetics in showing peak concentrations at 2 h followed by a slow decay lasting well beyond 8 h. These findings support previous studies demonstrating that GABAB R PAMs decrease voluntary ethanol intake without altering water intake. ADX71441 may be a worthwhile candidate for developing a treatment of alcoholism, yet its site of action in the brain and long-term pharmacological effects require further exploration.Psychopharmacology 08/2013; 231(2). DOI:10.1007/s00213-013-3245-z · 3.99 Impact Factor