Tucker KL, Olson B, Bakun P, Dallal GE, Selhub J, Rosenberg IH. Breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 increases vitamin concentrations and reduces homocysteine concentrations: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 805-811

Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 06/2004; 79(5):805-11.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT High homocysteine and low B vitamin concentrations have been linked to the risk of vascular disease, stroke, and dementia and are relatively common in older adults.
We assessed the effect of breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 on vitamin and homocysteine status.
A randomized, double-blind trial was conducted in 189 volunteers aged 50-85 y. The subjects had no history of hypertension, anemia, asthma, cancer, or cardiovascular or digestive disease and did not regularly consume multiple or B vitamin supplements or highly fortified breakfast cereal. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 1 cup (0.24 L) breakfast cereal fortified with 440 microg folic acid, 1.8 mg vitamin B-6, and 4.8 microg vitamin B-12 or placebo cereal for 12 wk. Blood was drawn at 0, 2, 12, and 14 wk. Methionine-loading tests were conducted at baseline and week 14.
Final baseline-adjusted plasma homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower and B vitamin concentrations were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). The percentage of subjects with plasma folate concentrations < 11 nmol/L decreased from 2% to 0%, with vitamin B-12 concentrations < 185 pmol/L from 9% to 3%, with vitamin B-6 concentrations < 20 nmol/L from 6% to 2%, and with homocysteine concentrations > 10.4 micromol/L (women) or > 11.4 micromol/L (men) from 6.4% to 1.6%. The percentage of control subjects with values beyond these cutoff points remained nearly constant or increased.
In this relatively healthy group of volunteers, consumption of 1 cup fortified breakfast cereal daily significantly increased B vitamin and decreased homocysteine concentrations, including post-methionine-load homocysteine concentrations.

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Available from: Katherine L Tucker, Oct 07, 2014
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    • "Foods were fortified in the United States beginning in 1996 after the FDA approved fortification of grains at a dose of 140 ug FA/100 g of food to place approximately 100 ug FA more into the average adult diet (Table 1) (Hoyo et al., 2011a). Trials around the world have documented increased serum folate concentrations after foods were fortified with FA (Johansson et al., 2002; Neuhouser et al., 1998; O&apos;Keefe et al., 1995; Tucker et al., 2004) or after supplementation with FA (Brouwer et al., 1999; Hao et al., 2008; Houghton et al., 2011; Hursthouse et al., 2011; Neuhouser et al., 1998; Venn et al., 2002). Notably, FA added to foods during fortification is 70e85% bioavailable (as folate) compared to only 50% bioavailability of FA/folate naturally occurring in foods (Hoyo et al., 2011a; Quinlivan and Gregory, 2007; Winkels et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e.g. vitamins, energy drinks). Additionally, people with mutations in one of the enzymes that assists in the methyl donor pathway (5-MTHFR) are directed to consume higher amounts of methyl donors to compensate. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of methyl donor intake may also have detrimental effects. Individualized medicine may be necessary to determine the appropriate amounts of methyl donors to be consumed, particularly in women of child bearing age. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 04/2015; 118(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.pbiomolbio.2015.03.007 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    • "Ready-to-eat cereal products fortified with vitamin B12 are known to constitute a great proportion of dietary vitamin B12 intake (Watanabe 2007). Several groups of investigators suggested that eating a breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 increases blood concentrations of these vitamins and decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in elderly populations (Tucker et al. 2004). Therefore, fortified breakfast cereals have therefore become a particularly valuable source of vitamin B12 for elderly people and for vegetarians and/or vegans (Watanabe 2007). "
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    • "Some of these deficiencies are associated with an increase in serum cholesterol levels and blood pressure [11] [12] [13]. Other deficiencies such as vitamin B 6 , B 12 , or folic acid deficiency are associated with increased homocysteine levels [6] [7] [8]. For this reason, it is important to plan diets that, besides producing a loss of weight, contribute the necessary nutrients in order that deficiencies do not take place and that the next result is to improve CRF. "
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