Although anxiety disorders often co-occur with bipolar disorder in clinical settings, relatively few studies of bipolar disorder have looked specifically at panic comorbidity. This report examines lifetime panic comorbidity within a sample of families with a history of bipolar disorder.
One hundred and nine probands with bipolar disorder and their 226 siblings were interviewed as part of a family-genetic study. Logistic regression was used to model bipolar disorder as a predictor of comorbid panic in those with affective disorder, with age at interview and gender included as covariates.
The percentage with panic attacks was low in those without affective disorder (3%) compared with those with unipolar depression (22%) or bipolar disorder (32%). Panic disorder was found only in those with affective disorder (6% for unipolar, 16% for bipolar). When bipolar disorder and unipolar disorder were compared, controlling for age and sex, having bipolar disorder was associated with panic disorder (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.1, 7.8) and any panic symptoms (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.0,3.8) and more weakly with the combination of panic disorder and recurrent attacks (OR = 1.8, CI = 0.9, 3.5).
The absence of panic disorder and the low prevalence of any panic symptoms in those without bipolar or unipolar disorder suggest that panic is associated primarily with affective disorder within families with a history of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, panic disorder and symptoms are more common in bipolar disorder than in unipolar disorder in these families.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Personality traits are potential endophenotypes for genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. One personality theory which demonstrates strong heritability is Cloninger's psychobiological model measured using the temperament and character inventory (TCI).
277 individuals who completed the TCI questionnaire as part of the South Island Bipolar Study were also interviewed to assess for lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. Four groups were compared, bipolar disorder (BP), type 1 and 2, MDD (major depressive disorder), and nonaffected relatives of a proband with BP.
With correction for mood state, total harm avoidance (HA) was higher than unaffected in both MDD and BP groups, but the mood disorder groups did not differ from each other. However, BP1 individuals had higher self-transcendence (ST) than those with MDD and unaffected relatives. HA may reflect a trait marker of mood disorders whereas high ST may be specific to BP. As ST is heritable, genes that affect ST may be of relevance for vulnerability to BP.
Depression research and treatment 07/2011; 2011(2090-1321):529638. DOI:10.1155/2011/529638
"Several studies reported that some AnxD were more common in BPD-II than BPD-I (Doughty et al., 2004; Manning et al., 1997; Perugi et al., 1999; Rihmer et al., 2001). McElroy et al. (2001) reported that there were no significantly differences between BPD-I and BPD- II cases (42% and 45%, respectively) in terms of the prevalence of lifetime comorbid AnxD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High rates of anxiety disorders have been reported in bipolar disorders. The study aimed to investigate prevalence of anxiety disorders in remitted bipolar subjects and their influence on the illness severity. Bipolar subjects with anxiety disorders were younger, had earlier age at onset of illness, and were overrepresented by female subjects and those with earlier onset illness compared to those without anxiety disorder. The study demonstrated that (1) anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in bipolar subjects, (2) individual anxiety disorders, particularly SP and PD seem to have an effect on illness severity, (3) bipolar subjects with comorbid anxiety tend to have a poorer course and are less responsive to treatment, and (4) anxiety tends to be associated with an earlier age at onset of bipolar disorder (BPD) and results in a more complicated and severe disease course.
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