Identification and characterisation of hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus suis.
ABSTRACT Hyaluronate lyase, which catalyses the degradation of hyaluronic acid (HA), has been described from several pathogenic streptococcal species. We describe, for the first time, identification and purification of hyaluronate lyase from the zoonotic pig pathogen Streptococcus suis. We have cloned the hyaluronate lyase gene from S. suis and used it to generate an allelic replacement knock-out mutant of S. suis serotype 7 that can no longer biosynthesise the enzyme. Interestingly, a limited strain survey indicates that hyaluronate lyase activity is not present in all disease isolates of S. suis. Polyclonal anti-hyaluronate lyase anti-serum raised against our recombinant hyaluronate lyase has been used in Western blots, showing that hyaluronate lyase activity is always associated with the presence of protein of the expected size, whereas lack of hyaluronate lyase activity is due to truncation or absence of the enzyme. We show that hyaluronate lyase activity is required for S. suis to use HA polymer as a carbon source and that supplying exogenous recombinant hyaluronate lyase to all S. suis strains tested allowed fermentation of the resultant HA breakdown products.
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ABSTRACT: The diffusion of toxins from the site of a bite into the circulation is essential for successful envenomation. Degradation of hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by venom hyaluronidase is a key factor in this diffusion. Hyaluronidase not only increases the potency of other toxins but also damages the local tissue. In spite of its important role, little attention has been paid to this enzyme. Hyaluronidase exists in various isoforms and generates a wide range of hyaluronic acid degradation products. This suggests that beyond its role as a spreading factor venom hyaluronidase deserves to be explored as a possible therapeutic target for inhibiting the systemic distribution of venom and also for minimizing local tissue destruction at the site of the bite.Cell Biochemistry and Function 24(1):7-12. · 1.77 Impact Factor
Article: Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis isolates as determined by comparative genome hybridization.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that causes infections in young piglets. S. suis is a heterogeneous species. Thirty-three different capsular serotypes have been described, that differ in virulence between as well as within serotypes. In this study, the correlation between gene content, serotype, phenotype and virulence among 55 S. suis strains was studied using Comparative Genome Hybridization (CGH). Clustering of CGH data divided S. suis isolates into two clusters, A and B. Cluster A isolates could be discriminated from cluster B isolates based on the protein expression of extracellular factor (EF). Cluster A contained serotype 1 and 2 isolates that were correlated with virulence. Cluster B mainly contained serotype 7 and 9 isolates. Genetic similarity was observed between serotype 7 and serotype 2 isolates that do not express muramidase released protein (MRP) and EF (MRP⁻EF⁻), suggesting these isolates originated from a common founder. Profiles of 25 putative virulence-associated genes of S. suis were determined among the 55 isolates. Presence of all 25 genes was shown for cluster A isolates, whereas cluster B isolates lacked one or more putative virulence genes. Divergence of S. suis isolates was further studied based on the presence of 39 regions of difference. Conservation of genes was evaluated by the definition of a core genome that contained 78% of all ORFs in P1/7. In conclusion, we show that CGH is a valuable method to study distribution of genes or gene clusters among isolates in detail, yielding information on genetic similarity, and virulence traits of S. suis isolates.BMC Microbiology 01/2011; 11:161. · 3.04 Impact Factor