Identification and characterisation of hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus suis.
ABSTRACT Hyaluronate lyase, which catalyses the degradation of hyaluronic acid (HA), has been described from several pathogenic streptococcal species. We describe, for the first time, identification and purification of hyaluronate lyase from the zoonotic pig pathogen Streptococcus suis. We have cloned the hyaluronate lyase gene from S. suis and used it to generate an allelic replacement knock-out mutant of S. suis serotype 7 that can no longer biosynthesise the enzyme. Interestingly, a limited strain survey indicates that hyaluronate lyase activity is not present in all disease isolates of S. suis. Polyclonal anti-hyaluronate lyase anti-serum raised against our recombinant hyaluronate lyase has been used in Western blots, showing that hyaluronate lyase activity is always associated with the presence of protein of the expected size, whereas lack of hyaluronate lyase activity is due to truncation or absence of the enzyme. We show that hyaluronate lyase activity is required for S. suis to use HA polymer as a carbon source and that supplying exogenous recombinant hyaluronate lyase to all S. suis strains tested allowed fermentation of the resultant HA breakdown products.
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ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis (SS) is an important swine pathogen worldwide that occasionally causes serious infections in humans. SS infection may result in meningitis in pigs and humans. The pathogenic mechanisms of SS are poorly understood. Here, we provide the complete genome sequence of S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) strain SC070731 isolated from a pig with meningitis. The chromosome is 2,138,568bp in length. There are 1933 predicted protein coding sequences and 96.7% (57/59) of the known virulence-associated genes are present in the genome. Strain SC070731 showed similar virulence with SS2 virulent strains HA9801 and ZY05719, but was more virulent than SS2 virulent strain P1/7 in the zebrafish infection model. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a unique 105K genomic island in strain SC070731 that is absent in seven other sequenced SS2 strains. Further analysis of the 105K genomic island indicated that it contained a complete nisin locus similar to the nisin U locus in S. uberis strain 42, a prophage similar to S. oralis phage PH10 and several antibiotic resistance genes. Several proteins in the 105K genomic island, including nisin and RelB/E toxin-antitoxin system, contribute to the bacterial fitness and virulence in other pathogenic bacteria. Further investigation of newly identified gene products, including four putative new virulence-associated surface proteins, will improve our understanding of SS pathogenesis.Gene 12/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis is a major bacterial pathogen of young pigs causing worldwide economic problems for the pig industry. S. suis is also an emerging pathogen of humans. Colonization of porcine oropharynx by S. suis is considered to be a high risk factor for invasive disease. In the oropharyngeal cavity, where glucose is rapidly absorbed but dietary α-glucans persist, there is a profound effect of carbohydrate availability on the expression of virulence genes. Nineteen predicted or confirmed S. suis virulence genes that promote adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells were expressed at higher levels when S. suis was supplied with the α-glucan starch/pullulan compared to glucose as the single carbon source. Additionally the production of suilysin, a toxin that damages epithelial cells, was increased more than ten-fold when glucose levels were low and S. suis was growing on pullulan. Based on biochemical, bioinformatics and in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies, we developed a biological model that postulates the effect of carbon catabolite repression on expression of virulence genes in the mucosa, organs and blood. This research increases our understanding of S. suis virulence mechanisms and has important implications for the design of future control strategies including the development of anti-infective strategies by modulating animal feed composition.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e89334. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ruminants, especially cattle, have been implicated as a principal reservoir of one of the enterovirulent Escherichia coli pathotypes. The detection of the virulence genes in diarrhoeic calves and small ruminants has not been studied in Egypt. To determine the occurrence, serotypes and the virulence gene markers, stx1, stx2, hylA, Flic(h7) , stb, F41, K99, sta, F17, LT-I, LT-II and eae, rectal swabs were taken from diarrhoeic calves, sheep and goats and subjected to bacterial culture and PCR. The E. coli prevalence rate in the diarrhoeic animals was 63.6% in calves, 27.3% in goat and 9.1% in sheep. The 102 E. coli strains isolated from the calves, goat and sheep were 100% haemolytic non-verotoxic and fitted into the Eagg group. The isolates belonged to seven O serogroups (O25, O78, O86, O119, O158, O164 and O157). The eae gene was detected in six of the strains isolated from the calves. The 102 bovine, ovine and caprine E. coli strains isolated in this study were negative for stx1, stx2, F41, LT-I and Flic(h7) genes. The highest gene combinations were found to occur in the form of 24/102 isolates (23.5%) that carried the F17 gene predominantly associated with eaeA, hylA, K99 and Stb genes in the calves, while the hylA, K99 and Sta were the only genes found to be in conjunction in both calves and goats (6/102; 5.9% each). Our data show that in Egypt, large and small ruminants could be a potential source of infection in humans.Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 03/2012; · 2.10 Impact Factor