Carboplatin induces apoptotic cell death through downregulation of constitutively active nuclear factor-kappaB in human HPV-18 E6-positive HEp-2 cells.
ABSTRACT Because the role of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is in cellular growth control and neoplasia, we explored the status of NF-kappaB and investigated its role in survival of human HPV-18 E6-positive HEp-2 cells. We observed accumulation of p65 in the nucleus. Moreover, without any external stimulus constitutive NF-kappaB DNA binding and transactivation activity were detected in HEp-2 cells. Treatment with NF-kappaB inhibitor curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and transient transfection of the mutant form of IkappaBalpha, IkappaBalpha super repressor (IkappaBalpha-SR), suppressed constitutive NF-kappaB activity as well as proliferation, suggesting that constitutive NF-kappaB activity is required for the survival of HEp-2 cells. Carboplatin treatment downregulated constitutive NF-kappaB activity and prevented nuclear retention of p65. Further, carboplatin also suppressed the constitutive IkappaBalpha phosphorylation leading to stabilization of IkappaBalpha protein in the cells. Carboplatin inhibited NF-kappaB binding to its response element present in Bcl-2 promoter resulting in downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Thus, our results for the first time indicate that constitutive NF-kappaB has a significant role in the survival of HPV-18 E6-positive HEp-2 cells. Moreover, inactivation of NF-kappaB is one of the mechanisms underlying the induction of carboplatin-mediated apoptosis in HPV-18 E6-positive cancer cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Alok Chandra Bharti[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Even after 25 years of establishing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the causative agent for cervical cancer, effective treatment of HPV infection still unavailable. Comprehensive efforts especially for targeting HPV infection have been made only in recent years. Conventional physical ablation of HPV-induced lesions such as cryo-therapy, photo-therapy, LEEP, laser cone-biopsy and localized radiotherapy are shown to be effective to some extent in treating localized lesions where the removal of diseased tissue is associated with removal of transforming keratinocytes harboring HPV. Apart from currently available prophylactic vaccines which prevent the viral entry and should be given prior to viral exposure, several attempts are being made to develop therapeutic vaccines that could treat prevailing HPV infection. In addition, immunomodulators like interferons and imiquimod that have been shown to elicit cytokine milieu to enhance host immune response against HPV infection. Also, antiviral approaches such as RNA interference (RNAi) nucleotide analogs, antioxidants and herbal derivatives have shown effective therapeutic potential against HPV infection. These leads are being tested in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Present article provides a brief overview of conventional therapies for HPV-associated diseases. Potential of non-ablative anti-HPV treatment modalities that could prove useful for either elimination of HPV in early stages of infection when the virus is not integrated into the host cell genome or suppression of the expression of viral oncogenes that dys-regulate the host cell cycle following transformation is discussed.The Indian Journal of Medical Research 09/2009; 130(3):296-310. · 2.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite longstanding and explicit legal frameworks for preventing and responding to sexual harassment, only a small proportion of those sexually harassed use legal avenues of redress to seek justice. In contrast to legal cases which constitute the ‘tip of the iceberg’, this study examines extra-legal strategies — the less visible but more frequent, ‘everyday’, formal and informal organizational practices. We report on a national prevalence survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission which examined how ‘targets’ use formal organizational grievance mechanisms, and/or other informal methods to redress, resist or avoid workplace sexual harassment. The findings revealed that the majority of targets do not formally report it because of fear of retribution or that nothing will be done, but they sometimes use apparently proactive or assertive alternative strategies, such as seeking informal assistance and ‘dealing with the problem themselves’. These responses occur in the context of extra-legal facets of organizational life which affect the extent to which sexual harassment and other unfavorable and discriminatory acts are tolerated.Womens Studies International Forum - WOMEN STUD INT FORUM. 01/2011; 34(4):278-289.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Due to substantial technical improvements, clinical application of heat as a co-adjuvant in cancer treatment is acquiring new interest. The effect of hyperthermia on hepatoma cell lines Hep3B (p53 defective) and HepG2 (p53 wild type) when investigated led to an interesting observation that Hep3B cells are more susceptible to heat stress than HepG2 cells. In addition, heat-induced carboplatin resistance was observed in HepG2 cells only. To investigate the reasons, heat shock response was explored and it was observed that heat stress augmented heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression levels in HepG2 and not in Hep3B cells. Furthermore, in HepG2 cells, induced Hsp70 is regulated by both p53 and heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) wherein HSF1 levels are modulated by p53. The data implies that Hep3B are more susceptible to death upon heat stress than HepG2 cells because of non-induction of Hsp70. In addition, it was observed that inhibition of heat-induced p53/HSF1 diminishes Hsp70 levels, thereby restoring the sensitivity of heat-stressed HepG2 cells to carboplatin-triggered cell death. Collectively, the present study establishes interplay of p53, HSF1, and Hsp70 upon heat stress in HepG2 cells and also defines novel strategies to overcome constraints of utility of hyperthermia in cancer therapy through p53/HSF1-targeted therapeutic intervention.Cancer Science 01/2010; 101(5):1186-93. · 3.48 Impact Factor