Carboplatin induces apoptotic cell death through downregulation of constitutively active nuclear factor-kappaB in human HPV-18 E6-positive HEp-2 cells.
ABSTRACT Because the role of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is in cellular growth control and neoplasia, we explored the status of NF-kappaB and investigated its role in survival of human HPV-18 E6-positive HEp-2 cells. We observed accumulation of p65 in the nucleus. Moreover, without any external stimulus constitutive NF-kappaB DNA binding and transactivation activity were detected in HEp-2 cells. Treatment with NF-kappaB inhibitor curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and transient transfection of the mutant form of IkappaBalpha, IkappaBalpha super repressor (IkappaBalpha-SR), suppressed constitutive NF-kappaB activity as well as proliferation, suggesting that constitutive NF-kappaB activity is required for the survival of HEp-2 cells. Carboplatin treatment downregulated constitutive NF-kappaB activity and prevented nuclear retention of p65. Further, carboplatin also suppressed the constitutive IkappaBalpha phosphorylation leading to stabilization of IkappaBalpha protein in the cells. Carboplatin inhibited NF-kappaB binding to its response element present in Bcl-2 promoter resulting in downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Thus, our results for the first time indicate that constitutive NF-kappaB has a significant role in the survival of HPV-18 E6-positive HEp-2 cells. Moreover, inactivation of NF-kappaB is one of the mechanisms underlying the induction of carboplatin-mediated apoptosis in HPV-18 E6-positive cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: The use of an "over 1000-nm near-infrared (NIR) in vivo fluorescence bioimaging" system based on lanthanide containing inorganic nanostructures emitting in the visible and NIR range under 980-nm excitation is proposed. It may overcome problems of currently used biomarkers including color fading, phototoxicity and scattering. Gd(2)O(3):Er(3+),Yb(3+) nanoparticles and nanorods showing upconversion and NIR emission are synthesized and their cytotoxic behavior is investigated by incubation with B-cell hybridomas and macrophages. Surface modification with PEG-b-PAAc provides the necessary chemical durability reducing the release of toxic Gd(3+) ions. NIR fluorescence microscopy is used to investigate the suitability of the nanostructures as NIR-NIR biomarkers. The in vitro uptake of bare and modified nanostructures by macrophages is investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In vivo investigations revealed nanostructures in liver, lung, kidneys and spleen a few hours after injection into mice, while most of the nanostructures have been removed from the body after 24 h.Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 05/2012; 23(10):2399-412. DOI:10.1007/s10856-012-4671-x · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Bcl-2 family contains a panel of proteins which are conserved regulators of apoptosis in mammalian cells, like the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. According to its significant role in altering susceptibility to apoptosis, the deciphering of the mechanism of Bcl-2 expression modulation may be crucial for identifying therapeutics strategies for cancer. Treatment with naphthalimide-based DNA intercalators, including M2-A and R16, generally leads to a decrease in Bcl-2 intracellular amounts. Whereas the interest for these chemotherapeutics is accompanied by advances in the fundamental understanding of their anticancer properties, the molecular mechanism underlying changes in Bcl-2 expression remains poorly understood. We report here that p53 contributes to Bcl-2 down-regulation induced by B1, a novel naphthalimide-based DNA intercalating agent. Indeed, the decrease in Bcl-2 protein levels observed during B1-induced apoptosis was correlated to the decrease in mRNA levels, as a result of the inhibition of Bcl-2 transcription and promoter activity. In this context, we evaluated p53 contribution in the Bcl-2 transcriptional down-regulation. We found a significant increase of p53 binding to P(2) promoter TATA box in MCF7 cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. These data suggest that B1-induced caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells is associated with the activation of p53 and the down-regulation of Bcl-2. Our study strengthens the links between p53 and Bcl-2 at a transcriptional level, upon naphthalimide-based DNA intercalator treatment.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2011; 256(1):52-61. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2011.07.010 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite longstanding and explicit legal frameworks for preventing and responding to sexual harassment, only a small proportion of those sexually harassed use legal avenues of redress to seek justice. In contrast to legal cases which constitute the ‘tip of the iceberg’, this study examines extra-legal strategies — the less visible but more frequent, ‘everyday’, formal and informal organizational practices. We report on a national prevalence survey conducted by the Australian Human Rights Commission which examined how ‘targets’ use formal organizational grievance mechanisms, and/or other informal methods to redress, resist or avoid workplace sexual harassment. The findings revealed that the majority of targets do not formally report it because of fear of retribution or that nothing will be done, but they sometimes use apparently proactive or assertive alternative strategies, such as seeking informal assistance and ‘dealing with the problem themselves’. These responses occur in the context of extra-legal facets of organizational life which affect the extent to which sexual harassment and other unfavorable and discriminatory acts are tolerated.Women s Studies International Forum 07/2011; 34(4):278-289. DOI:10.1016/j.wsif.2011.03.002 · 0.46 Impact Factor