Assessment of the safety of food derived from genetically modified (GM) crops

Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, 718 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Food and Chemical Toxicology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 08/2004; 42(7):1047-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2004.02.019
Source: PubMed


This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex modifications. First, the paper reviews test methods developed for the risk assessment of chemicals, including food additives and pesticides, discussing which of these methods are suitable for the assessment of recombinant proteins and whole foods. Second, the paper presents a systematic approach to combine test methods for the safety assessment of foods derived from a specific GM crop. Third, the paper provides an overview on developments in this area that may prove of use in the safety assessment of GM crops, and recommendations for research priorities. It is concluded that the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops. Advances in our understanding of molecular biology, biochemistry, and nutrition may in future allow further improvement of test methods that will over time render the safety assessment of foods even more effective and informative.

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Available from: André H Penninks, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "uous amino acids . The research by using six and seven contiguous amino acids revealed identity of known allergens with Mo - CBP 3 isoforms . However , with the criterion of eight contiguous amino acids no identity could be observed . The approach using six contiguous amino acids is often criticized for generating high rate of false positives ( K€ onig et al . , 2004 ) . Many random results that show no risk of cross - reaction is observed when a short sequence of amino acids is used ( Hileman et al . , 2002 ) . A research with eight contig - uous amino acids is probably more effective in detection of immunogenic epitopes ( ILSI HESI , 2001 ; Hileman et al . , 2002 ) . In addition , the peptides fou"
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    ABSTRACT: Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo- CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (> 35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 05/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2015.05.012 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "However, many countries are still not in for it, or have not committed to testing this new method, which could be a possible solution to this ill. Ethical issues still surround the usage of genetically modified foods in most areas of the world, despite outstanding evidence of its safety [28, 29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Malnutrition is estimated to contribute to more than one third of all child deaths, although it is rarely listed as the direct cause. Contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide; child malnutrition was associated with 54% of deaths in children in developing countries in 2001. Poverty remains the major contributor to this ill. The vicious cycle of poverty, disease and illness aggravates this situation. Grooming undernourished children causes children to start life at mentally sub optimal levels. This becomes a serious developmental threat. Lack of education especially amongst women disadvantages children, especially as far as healthy practices like breastfeeding and child healthy foods are concerned. Adverse climatic conditions have also played significant roles like droughts, poor soils and deforestation. Sociocultural barriers are major hindrances in some communities, with female children usually being the most affected. Corruption and lack of government interest and investment are key players that must be addressed to solve this problem. A multisectorial approach is vital in tackling this problem. Improvement in government policy, fight against corruption, adopting a horizontal approach in implementing programmes at community level must be recognized. Genetically modified foods to increase food production and to survive adverse climatic conditions could be gateways in solving these problems. Socio cultural peculiarities of each community are an essential base line consideration for the implementation of any nutrition health promotion programs.
    Pan African Medical Journal 08/2013; 15:120. DOI:10.11604/pamj.2013.15.120.2535
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    • "유전자변형 작물은 작물 생산에 필요한 노동력과 농기계 사 용 절감에 따른 경제적인 이익뿐만 아니라(Owen, 2000), 기 후 변화 등의 농업환경 변화에 지속가능한 식량 생산을 가능 케 한다(Brookes and Barfoot, 2006). 그러나 외래 유전자 도입에 의한 독성 및 알레르기 물질 생산 가능성(Konig et al., 2004 "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genetically modified(GM) trigonal cactus(Hylocereus trigonus Saff.) contained a coat protein gene of cactus virus X (CVX), which conferred resistance to the virus, phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) gene, which conferred herbicide resistance, and a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV 35S). This study was conducted to evaluate the possible impact of GM trigonal cactus cultivation on the soil microbial community. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microorganisms were isolated from the rhizosphere of GM and non-GM trigonal cactus cultivation soils. The total numbers of bacteria, and actinomycete in the rhizosphere soils cultivated GM and non-GM trigonal cactus were similar to each other, and there was no significant difference. Dominant bacterial phyla in the rhizosphere soils cultivated with GM and non-GM trigonal cactus were Proteobacteria, Uncultured archaeon, and Uncultured bacterium. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles show a similar patterns, significant difference was not observed in each other. DNA was isolated from soil cultivated GM and non-GM trigonal cactus, we analyzed the persistence of the inserted gene by PCR. Amplification of the inserted genes was not observed in the soil DNA, which was collected after harvest. CONCLUSION(S): This result suggests that the GM trigonal cactus cultivation does not change significantly the microbial community.
    06/2013; 32(2). DOI:10.5338/KJEA.2013.32.2.148
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