Dopamine1 receptor agonists reverse opioid respiratory network depression, increase CO2 reactivity
ABSTRACT In adult pentobarbital-anesthetized and unanesthetized decerebrate cats, the D(1)R agonists (6-chloro-APB, SKF-38393, dihydrexidine) given intravenously restored phrenic nerve and vagus nerve respiratory discharges and firing of bulbar post-inspiratory neurons after the discharges were abolished by the micro-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl given intravenously. Reversal of opioid-mediated discharge depression was prevented by the D(1)R antagonist SCH23390. Iontophoresis of the micro-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO depressed firing of medullary bulbospinal inspiratory neurons. Co-iontophoresis of SKF-38393 did not restore firing and had no effect on bulbospinal inspiratory neuron discharges when applied alone. The D(1)R agonists given intravenously prolonged and intensified phrenic nerve and bulbospinal inspiratory neuron discharges. They also increased reactivity to CO(2) by lowering the phrenic nerve apnea threshold and shifting the phrenic nerve-CO(2) response curve to lower et(CO(2)) levels. Intravenous fentanyl on the other hand decreased CO(2) reactivity by shifting the phrenic nerve apnea threshold and the response curve to higher et(CO(2)) levels. Fentanyl effects on reactivity were partially reversed by D(1)R agonists.
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- "There is some evidence of a continuous modulation of the preBötC by histamine and dopamine. Thus, the histamine-type-1-receptor antagonist, pyrilamine, reduces the en bloc respiratory frequency and attenuates respiratory depression in hypoxia in mice (Dutschmann et al., 2003), while the dopamine-type-1-receptor antagonist SCH-23390 slows the respiratory rhythm of cats in vivo (Lalley, 2004, 2005). "
ABSTRACT: The generation of neural network dynamics relies on the interactions between the intrinsic and synaptic properties of their neural components. Moreover, neuromodulators allow networks to change these properties and adjust their activity to specific challenges. Endogenous continuous ("tonic") neuromodulation can regulate and sometimes be indispensible for networks to produce basal activity. This seems to be the case for the inspiratory rhythm generator located in the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). This neural network is necessary and sufficient for generating inspiratory rhythms. The preBötC produces normal respiratory activity (eupnea) as well as sighs under normoxic conditions, and it generates gasping under hypoxic conditions after a reconfiguration process. The reconfiguration leading to gasping generation involves changes of synaptic and intrinsic properties that can be mediated by several neuromodulators. Over the past years, it has been shown that endogenous continuous neuromodulation of the preBötC may involve the continuous action of amines and peptides on extrasynaptic receptors. I will summarize the findings supporting the role of endogenous continuous neuromodulation in the generation and regulation of different inspiratory rhythms, exploring the possibility that these neuromodulatory actions involve extrasynaptic receptors along with evidence of glial modulation of preBötC activity.Frontiers in Physiology 07/2012; 3:253. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00253 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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- "Few studies have investigated the role of D1 receptors on the ventilatory response to hypercapnia. Lalley (Lalley, 2004) examined the role of D1 receptors on ventilation in anesthetized and unaesthetized decerbrate cats and noted that D1 receptor agonists given intravenously stimulated frequency of breathing of cats in air and during exposure to CO 2 . "
ABSTRACT: Hypothyroidism can lead to depressed breathing. We determined if propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroidismin hamsters (HH) altered dopamine D1 receptor expression, D1 receptor-modulated ventilation, and ventilatory chemoreflex activation by hypoxia or hypercapnia. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering 0.04% PTU in drinking water for 3 months. Ventilation was evaluated following saline or 0.25mg/kg SCH 23390,a D1 receptor antagonist, while awake hamsters breathed normoxic (21% O(2) in N(2)), hypoxic (10% O(2)in N(2)) and hypercapnic (5% CO(2) in O(2))air. Relative to euthyroid hamsters (EH), HH exhibited decreased D1 receptor protein levels in carotid bodies, striatum, and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, but not in the nucleus tractus solitarius. Relative to EH, HH exhibited lower ventilation during exposure to normoxia, hypoxia, or hypercapnia, but comparable ventilatory responsiveness to chemoreflex activation. SCH23390 decreased ventilation of EH hamsters exposed to normoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia. In HH SCH23390 increased ventilation during baseline normoxia and did not affect ventilation during exposure to hypoxia and hypercapnia, resulting in reduced ventilatory responsivess to chemoreflex activation by hypoxia and hypercapnia. Furthermore, in HH D1 receptor protein levels are decreased in several brain regions and within the carotid bodies. Moreover, D1 receptor-modulation of breathing at rest and during gas exposures were depressed in EH but not HH.Brain research 07/2011; 1401:40-51. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.034 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that dopamine modulates the excitability of the respiratory network and its susceptibility to depression by exogenous opioids, but the roles of different subtypes of dopamine receptor in these processes are still uncertain. In this study, D1-dopamine receptor (D1R) involvement in dopaminergic modulation of respiratory rhythm and mu-opioid receptor mediated depression were investigated in pentobarbital-anesthetized cats. Intravenous administration of the D1R blocker SCH-23390 (100-200 microg/kg) slowed phrenic nerve and expiratory neuron respiratory rhythms by prolonging the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Phrenic nerve discharge intensity also increased more gradually during the inspiratory phase. SCH-23390 (150 microg/kg) also enhanced dose-dependent depression of phrenic nerve and expiratory neuron excitability, as well as rhythm disturbances, produced by the mu-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (2-20 microg/kg, i.v.). The results suggest an important role for the D1-subtype of receptor in respiratory rhythm modulation, and indicate that this type of receptor participates in dopaminergic compensatory mechanisms directed against opioid-mediated network depression.Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 02/2005; 145(1):13-22. DOI:10.1016/j.resp.2004.11.001 · 1.97 Impact Factor