Angiogenesis in chronic inflammatory liver disease.
ABSTRACT Intrahepatic hypoxia may occur during the inflammatory and fibrotic processes that characterize several chronic liver diseases of viral and autoimmune origin. As a consequence, new vascular structures are formed to provide oxygen and nutrients. Angiogenesis involves a tightly regulated network of cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in the formation of functional vessels. Of particular importance are growth factors, molecules involved in matrix remodeling and cell migration, and vessel maturation-related factors. In recent years, a number of studies have examined the expression and function of many pro- and antiangiogenic molecules in the setting of nontumoral chronic liver diseases and liver regeneration. This review examines the potential pathogenetic role of angiogenesis in the context of viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and alcoholic liver disease. The future perspectives for research in this field are outlined.
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ABSTRACT: Genetic ablation of angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) or of its cognate receptor, Tie2, disrupts angiogenesis in mouse embryos. The endothelial cells in growing blood vessels of Ang-1 knockout mice have a rounded appearance and are poorly associated with one another and their underlying basement membranes (Dumont, D. J., Gradwohl, G., Fong, G. H., Puri, M. C., Gertsenstein, M., Auerbach, A., and Breitman, M. L. (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 1897--1909; Sato, T. N., Tozawa, Y., Deutsch, U., Wolburg-Buchholz, K., Fujiwara, Y., Gendron-Maguire, M., Gridley, T., Wolburg, H., Risau, W., and Qin, Y. (1995) Nature 376, 70--74; Suri, C., Jones, P. F., Patan, S., Bartunkova, S., Maisonpierre, P. C., Davis, S., Sato, T. N., and Yancopoulos, G. D. (1996) Cell 87, 1171--1180). It is therefore possible that Ang-1 regulates endothelial cell adhesion. In this study we asked whether Ang-1 might act as a direct substrate for cell adhesion. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) plated for a brief period on different substrates were found to adhere and spread well on Ang-1. Similar results were seen on angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)-coated surfaces, although cells did not spread well on Ang-2. Ang-1, but not Ang-2, supported HUVEC migration, and this was independent of growth factor activity. When the same experiments were done with fibroblasts that either lacked, or stably expressed, Tie2, results similar to those with HUVECs were seen, suggesting that adhesion to the angiopoietins was independent of Tie2 and not limited to endothelial cells. Interestingly, when integrin-blocking agents were included in these assays, adhesion to either angiopoietin was significantly reduced. Moreover, Chinese hamster ovary-B2 cells lacking the alpha(5) integrin subunit did not adhere to Ang-1, but they did adhere to Ang-2. Stable expression of the human alpha(5) integrin subunit in these cells rescued adhesion to Ang-1 and promoted an increase in adhesion to Ang-2. We also found that Ang-1 and Ang-2 bind rather selectively to vitronectin. These results suggest that, beyond their role in modulating Tie2 signaling, Ang-1 and Ang-2 can directly support cell adhesion mediated by integrins.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2001; 276(28):26516-25. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During liver regeneration quiescent hepatocytes undergo one or two rounds of replication and then return to a nonproliferative state. Growth factors regulate this process by providing both stimulatory and inhibitory signals for cell proliferation. EGF, TGF alpha, and HGF stimulate DNA synthesis in hepatocytes in vivo and in culture but the sensitivity of cultured hepatocytes to the mitogenic effects of these factors is much higher than that of quiescent hepatocytes in intact livers. We have proposed that after partial hepatectomy, hepatocytes enter a state of replicative competence ("priming") before they can fully respond to growth factors. The priming step is an initiating event in liver regeneration that involves the activation and DNA binding of NF-kappa B and other transcription factors, which could be induced by TNF or other cytokines. EGF, TGF alpha, and HGF have major effects on liver growth. TGF alpha expression correlates with hepatocyte DNA synthesis during liver development and growth and the constitutive expression of the factor confers proliferative activity to adult hepatocytes in vivo and in culture. The data indicate that the activity of stimulatory and inhibitory growth factors such as TGF beta 1 and activin is low in normal livers but that the expression of both types of factors increase during liver regeneration.The FASEB Journal 01/1996; 9(15):1527-36. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) in 2 mouse models of arthritis, antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). For AIA studies, monarticular AIA was induced by methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) priming of Vegfb gene knockout (Vegfb(-/-)) and wild-type (Vegfb(+/+)) mice, followed by intraarticular injection of mBSA or saline control 8 days later. CIA was induced in Vegfb(-/-) and Vegfb(+/+) mice by intradermal injection of chick type II collagen in adjuvant. Arthritis was monitored in both models using defined criteria (clinical and histologic). Angiogenesis was measured by synovial vessel density in diseased and control joints. In AIA studies, Vegfb(+/+) mice displayed significant knee joint swelling and synovial inflammation 7 days after intraarticular injection of antigen. Synovial inflammation was associated with angiogenesis, since vessel density in AIA synovium was significantly higher in arthritic than in control joints from the same animal. Knee joint swelling, synovial inflammation, and inflammation-associated vessel density in arthritic joints were reduced in Vegfb(-/-) mice compared with arthritic joints from Vegfb(+/+) mice. Similarly, in CIA, both disease incidence and mean clinical severity scores were significantly reduced in Vegfb(-/-) mice compared with Vegfb(+/+) mice. Mean histologic severity scores and mean synovial vessel density were reduced in diseased joints from Vegfb(-/-) mice when compared with diseased joints from Vegfb(+/+) mice. The reduction in inflammation-associated synovial angiogenesis in Vegfb(-/-) mice implicates VEGF-B in pathologic vascular remodeling in inflammatory arthritis. VEGF-B may be an attractive target in the design of anti-angiogenic therapies for rheumatoid arthritis.Arthritis & Rheumatism 10/2003; 48(9):2660-9. · 7.48 Impact Factor