Combined application of parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and Caco-2 permeability assays in drug discovery.
ABSTRACT Data from permeability profiling using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and cell monolayer (Caco-2 and MDR1-MDCKII) methods were compared for two published compound sets and one in-house set. A majority of compounds in each set correlated (R(2) = 0.76-0.92), indicating the predominance of passive diffusion in the permeation of these compounds. Compounds that did not correlate grouped into two subsets. One subset had higher PAMPA permeability than cell monolayer permeability and consisted of compounds that are subject to secretory mechanisms: efflux or reduced passive diffusion of bases under Caco-2 when run under a pH gradient. The other subset had higher cell monolayer permeability than PAMPA permeability and consisted of compounds that are subject to absorptive mechanisms: paracellular, active transport, or increased passive diffusion of acids under Caco-2 when run under a pH gradient. Given the characteristics of the two methods, these studies suggest how PAMPA and Caco-2 can be synergistically applied for efficient and rapid investigation of permeation mechanisms in drug discovery. During early discovery, all compounds can be rapidly screened using PAMPA at low pH and neutral pH to assess passive diffusion permeability to indicate potential for gastrointestinal and cell assay permeation. During intermediate discovery, selected compounds can be additionally assayed by apical-to-basolateral Caco-2, which, in combination with PAMPA data, indicates susceptibility to additional permeation mechanisms (secretory and absorptive). During mid-to-late discovery, selected candidates can be examined in detail via multiple directional Caco-2 experiments and with transporter inhibitors for complete characterization of permeation mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Verapamil and naproxen Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) permeability was studied using lipids not yet reported for this model in order to facilitate the quantification of drug permeability. These lipids are 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and an equimolar mixture of DMPC/DSPC, both in the absence and in the presence of 33.3 mol% of cholesterol. PAMPA drug permeability using the lipids mentioned above was compared with lecithin-PC. The results show that verapamil permeability depends on the kind of lipid used, in the order DMPC > DMPC/DSPC > DSPC. The permeability of the drugs was between 1.3 and 3.5-times larger than those obtained in lecithin-PC for all the concentrations of the drug used. Naproxen shows similar permeability than verapamil; however, the permeability increased with respect to lecithin-PC only when DMPC and DMPC/DSPC were used. This behavior could be explained by a difference between the drug net charge at pH 7.4. On the other hand, in the presence of cholesterol, verapamil permeability increases in all lipid systems; however, the relative verapamil permeability respect to lecithin-PC did not show any significant increase. This result is likely due to the promoting effect of cholesterol, which is not able to compensate for the large increase in verapamil permeability observed in lecithin-PC. With respect to naproxen, its permeability value and relative permeability respect lecithin-PC not always increased in the presence of cholesterol. This result is probably attributed to the negative charge of naproxen rather than its molecular weight. The lipid systems studied have an advantage in drug permeability quantification, which is mainly related to the charge of the molecule and not to its molecular weight or to cholesterol used as an absorption promoter.Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 02/2014; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As part of our research projects to identify new chemical entities of biological interest, we developed a synthetic approach and the biological evaluation of (7‐aryl‐1,5‐naphthyridin‐4‐yl)ureas as a novel class of Aurora kinase inhibitors for the treatment of malignant diseases based on pathological cell proliferation. 1,5‐Naphthyridine derivatives showed excellent inhibitory activities toward Aurora kinases A and B, and the most active compound, 1‐cyclopropyl‐3‐[7‐(1‐methyl‐1H‐pyrazol‐4‐yl)‐1,5‐naphthyridin‐4‐yl]urea (49), displayed IC50 values of 13 and 107 nM against Aurora kinases A and B, respectively. In addition, the selectivity toward a panel of seven cancer‐related protein kinases was highlighted. In vitro ADME properties were also determined in order to rationalize the difficulties in correlating antiproliferative activity with Aurora kinase inhibition. Finally, the good safety profile of these compounds imparts promising potential for their further development as anticancer agents.ChemMedChem 01/2014; 9(1). · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metal-ion dysregulation and oxidative stress have been linked to the progressive neurological decline associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Herein we report the synthesis and chelating, antioxidant, and in vitro neuroprotective activities of a novel derivative of glutathione, GS(HQ)H, endowed with an 8-hydroxyquinoline group as a metal-chelating moiety. In vitro results showed that GS(HQ)H may be stable enough to be absorbed unmodified and arrive intact to the blood-brain barrier, that it may be able to remove Cu(II) and Zn(II) from the Aβ peptide without causing any copper or zinc depletion in vivo, and that it protects SHSY-5Y human neuroblastoma cells against H2 O2 - and 6-OHDA-induced damage. Together, these findings suggest that GS(HQ)H could be a potential neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in which a lack of metal homeostasis has been reported as a key factor.ChemMedChem 09/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor