The expanded family of class II cytokines that share the IL-10 receptor-2 (IL-10R2) chain
ABSTRACT Several novel interleukin (IL)-10-related cytokines have recently been discovered. These include IL-22, IL-26, and the interferon-lambda (IFN-lambda) proteins IFN-lambda1 (IL-29), IFN-lambda2 (IL-28A), and IFN-lambda3 (IL-28B). The ligand-binding chains for IL-22, IL-26, and IFN-lambda are distinct from that used by IL-10; however, all of these cytokines use a common second chain, IL-10 receptor-2 (IL-10R2; CRF2-4), to assemble their active receptor complexes. Thus, IL-10R2 is a shared component in at least four distinct class II cytokine-receptor complexes. IL-10 binds to IL-10R1; IL-22 binds to IL-22R1; IL-26 binds to IL-20R1; and IFN-lambda binds to IFN-lambdaR1 (also known as IL-28R). The binding of these ligands to their respective R1 chains induces a conformational change that enables IL-10R2 to interact with the newly formed ligand-receptor complexes. This in turn activates a signal-transduction cascade that results in rapid activation of several transcription factors, particularly signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and to a lesser degree, STAT1. Activation by IL-10, IL-22, IL-26, or IFN-lambda can be blocked with neutralizing antibodies to the IL-10R2 chain. Although IL-10R2 is broadly expressed on a wide variety of tissues, only a subset of these tissues expresses the ligand-binding R1 chains. The receptors for these cytokines are often present on cell lines derived from various tumors, including liver, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. Consequently, the receptors for these cytokines may provide novel targets for inhibiting the growth of certain types of cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus has been identified a quarter of a decade ago as a leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Only a minority of patients can clear the virus spontaneously during acute infection. Elimination of HCV during acute infection correlates with a rapid induction of innate, especially interferon (IFN) induced genes, and a delayed induction of adaptive immune responses. However, the majority of patients is unable to clear the virus and develops viral persistence in face of an ongoing innate and adaptive immune response. The virus has developed several strategies to escape these immune responses. For example, to escape innate immunity, the HCV NS3/4A protease can efficiently cleave and inactivate two important signalling molecules in the sensory pathways that react to HCV pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to induce IFNs, i.e., the mitochondrial anti-viral signalling protein (MAVS) and the Toll-IL-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β (TRIF). Despite these escape mechanisms, IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are induced in a large proportion of patients with chronic infection. Of note, chronically HCV infected patients with constitutive IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression have a poor response to treatment with pegylated IFN-α (PegIFN-α) and ribavirin. The mechanisms that protect HCV from IFN-mediated innate immune reactions are not entirely understood, but might involve blockade of ISG protein translation at the ribosome, localization of viral replication to cell compartments that are not accessible to anti-viral IFN-stimulated effector systems, or direct antagonism of effector systems by viral proteins. Escape from adaptive immune responses can be achieved by emergence of viral escape mutations that avoid recognition by antibodies and T cells. In addition, chronic infection is characterized by the presence of functionally and phenotypically altered NK and T cell responses that are unable to clear the virus but most likely contribute to the ongoing liver disease. In this review, we will summarize current knowledge about the role of innate and adaptive immune responses in determining the outcome of HCV infection.Journal of Hepatology 11/2014; 61(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2014.06.035 · 10.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interferons are a group of small proteins that play key roles in host antiviral innate immunity. Their induction mainly relies on host pattern recognition receptors (PRR). Host PRR for RNA viruses include Toll-like receptors (TLR) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like receptors (RLR). Activation of both TLR and RLR pathways can eventually lead to the secretion of type I IFNs, which can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses against viral pathogens. Because of the important roles of interferons, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to evade host TLR and RLR mediated signaling. This review focuses on the mechanisms of interferon induction and antagonism of the antiviral strategy by RNA viruses.Viruses 12/2014; 6:4999-5027. DOI:10.3390/v6124999 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Innate immunity is key to the fight against the daily onslaught from viruses that our bodies are subjected to. Essential to this response are the interferons (IFNs) that prime our cells to block viral pathogens. Recent evidence suggests that the Type III (λ) IFNs are intimately associated with the immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms within the IFN-λ gene locus that correlate with response to IFNα-based antiviral therapy and with spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. The mechanisms for these correlations are incompletely understood. Restricted expression of the IFN-λ receptor, and the ability of IFN-λ to induce IFN-stimulated genes in HCV-infected cells, suggest potential roles for IFN-λ in HCV therapy even in this era of directly acting antivirals. This review summarizes our current understanding of the IFN-λ family and the role of λ IFNs in the natural history of HCV infection.Frontiers in Immunology 10/2014; 5:545. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00545