Article

Antiviral drugs in current clinical use.

Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Minderbroedersstraat 10, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Journal of Clinical Virology (Impact Factor: 3.47). 07/2004; 30(2):115-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2004.02.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The current armamentarium for the chemotherapy of viral infections consists of 37 licensed antiviral drugs. For the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, 19 compounds have been formally approved: (i) the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; (ii) the nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI) tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; (iii) the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) nevirapine, delavirdine and efavirenz; (iv) the protease inhibitors saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir (combined with ritonavir at a 4/1 ratio) and atazanavir; and the viral entry inhibitor enfuvirtide. For the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, lamivudine as well as adefovir dipivoxil have been approved. Among the anti-herpesvirus agents, acyclovir, valaciclovir, penciclovir (when applied topically), famciclovir, idoxuridine and trifluridine (both applied topically) as well as brivudin are used in the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and/or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections; and ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir and fomivirsen (the latter upon intravitreal injection) have proven useful in the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunosuppressed patients (i.e. AIDS patients with CMV retinitis). Following amantadine and rimantadine, the neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir have recently become available for the therapy (and prophylaxis) of influenza virus infections. Ribavirin has been used (topically, as aerosol) in the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections, and the combination of ribavirin with (pegylated) interferon-alpha has received increased acceptance for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections.

0 Followers
 · 
238 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An eco-friendly nanoprecipitation technique was put forward to synthesize native starch nanoparticles loaded with insoluble drugs such as indomethacin (IND) and Acyclovir (ACV). Factors studied to find out the optimum conditions for preparation of different formulations of crosslinked starch nanoparticles (TPP-StNPs) loaded with insoluble drugs. The factors are 20 mg, 50 mg of drug concentration and 0.5, 1 g of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) while the concentration of starch and surfactant were kept constant. World-class facilities as particle size analyzer, poly dispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy and DSc were used for evaluation of the resultant crosslinked starch nanoparticles loaded with drug. The sustained release of drugs were evaluated using entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The data obtained confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug (IND, ACV) and crosslinked starch nanoparticles. The results indicate that the best formula for IND loaded starch nanoparticles was 0.5 g STPP and 20 mg IND while the best formula for ACV nanoparticles was at 0.5 g STPP and 50 mg ACV drug.
    Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology 01/2015; 6(1):1-8. DOI:10.4172/2157-7439.1000254 · 5.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Essential oils are complex mixtures containing compounds of several different functional- group classes. Depending on the structure, we can distinguish monoterpenes, phenylpropanes, and other components. Here in this study two monoterpene compounds of essential oils, i.e. β-pinene and limonene were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. All antiviral assays were performed using RC-37 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined in a neutral red assay, antiviral assays were performed with HSV-1 strain KOS. The mode of antiviral action was evaluated at different periods during the viral replication cycle. Acyclovir was used as positive antiviral control. Beta-pinenene and limonenen reduced viral infectivity by 100 %. The mode of antiviral action has been determined, only moderate antiviral effects were revealed by monoterpenes when these drugs were added to host cells prior infection or after entry of HSV into cells. However, both monoterpenes exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity by direct interaction with free virus particles. Both tested drugs interacted with HSV-1 in a dose-dependent manner thereby inactivating viral infection. These results suggest that monoterpenes in essential oils exhibit antiherpetic activity in the early phase of viral multiplication and might be used as potential antiviral agents.
    06/2014; 6(3):149-55.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An andrographolide analogue, 3, 19-isopropylideneandrographolide (IPAD), exerts an inhibitory effect on replication of wild-type herpes simplex virus serotype 1 (HSV-1). In this study, we examined the anti-viral activity of IPAD on HSV wild types (HSV-1 strain KOS and HSV-2 clinical isolate) and HSV-1 drug-resistant strains (DRs). Synergistic effects of IPAD with acyclovir (ACV) were also evaluated. MTT and cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assays were performed to determine cytotoxicity and anti-viral activities, respectively. A combination assay was used to determine synergistic effects of IPAD and ACV. Presence of viral DNA and protein in experimental cells was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. A non-cytotoxic concentration of IPAD (20.50 μM) completely inhibited CPE formation induced by HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs after viral entry into the cells. The anti-HSV activities included inhibition of viral DNA and protein synthesis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ACV for HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs were 20.20 and 2,220.00 μM, respectively. Combination of ACV with IPAD showed synergistic effects in inhibition of CPE formation, viral DNA and protein synthesis by HSV wild types as well as HSV-1 DRs. For the synergistic effects on HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs, the effective concentrations of ACV were reduced. These results showed the inhibitory potential of IPAD on HSV wild types and HSV-1 DRs and suggested that IPAD could be used in combination with ACV for treatment of HSV-1 DRs infections.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12/2015; 15(1):591. DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0591-x · 1.88 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
10 Downloads
Available from