Construction, characterization and chromosomal mapping of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti).

Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.
Chromosome Research (Impact Factor: 2.69). 02/2004; 12(3):251-62. DOI: 10.1023/B:CHRO.0000021946.13556.40
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We constructed a high redundancy bacterial artificial chromosome library of a seriously endangered Old World Monkey, the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti) from China. This library contains a total of 136 320 BAC clones. The average insert size of BAC clones was estimated to be 148 kb. The percentage of small inserts (50-100 kb) is 2.74%, and only 2.67% non-recombinant clones were observed. Assuming a similar genome size with closely related primate species, the Yunnan snub-nosed monkey BAC library has at least six times the genome coverage. By end sequencing of randomly selected BAC clones, we generated 201 sequence tags for the library. A total of 139 end-sequenced BAC clones were mapped onto the chromosomes of Yunnan snub-nosed monkey by fluorescence in-situ hybridization, demonstrating a high degree of synteny conservation between humans and Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys. Blast search against human genome showed a good correlation between the number of hit clones and the size of the chromosomes, an indication of unbiased chromosomal distribution of the BAC library. This library and the mapped BAC clones will serve as a valuable resource in comparative genomics studies and large-scale genome sequencing of nonhuman primates. The DNA sequence data reported in this paper were deposited in GenBank and assigned the accession number CG891489-CG891703.


Available from: Bing Su, May 09, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chinese pangolins as a representative species in the order Pholidota have highly specified morphological characters and occupy an important place in the mammalian phylogenetic tree. To obtain genomic data for this species, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Chinese pangolin. The library contains 208,272 clones with an average insert size of 122.1 kb and represents approximately eight times the Chinese pangolin haploid genome (if we assume that the Chinese pangolins have a genome size similar to human). One hundred and twenty randomly-selected BAC clones were mapped onto Chinese pangolin chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), showing a largely unbiased chromosomal distribution. Several clones containing repetitive DNA and ribosomal DNA genes were also found. The BAC library and FISH mapped BAC clones are useful resources for comparative genomics and cytogenetics of mammals and in particular, the ongoing genome sequencing project of Chinese pangolins.
    Cytogenetic and Genome Research 02/2008; 122(1):55-60. DOI:10.1159/000151316 · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homeobox genes are the key regulators during development, and they are in general highly conserved with only a few reported cases of rapid evolution. RHOXF2 is an X-linked homeobox gene in primates. It is highly expressed in the testicle and may play an important role in spermatogenesis. As male reproductive system is often the target of natural and/or sexual selection during evolution, in this study, we aim to dissect the pattern of molecular evolution of RHOXF2 in primates and its potential functional consequence. We studied sequences and copy number variation of RHOXF2 in humans and 16 nonhuman primate species as well as the expression patterns in human, chimpanzee, white-browed gibbon and rhesus macaque. The gene copy number analysis showed that there had been parallel gene duplications/losses in multiple primate lineages. Our evidence suggests that 11 nonhuman primate species have one RHOXF2 copy, and two copies are present in humans and four Old World monkey species, and at least 6 copies in chimpanzees. Further analysis indicated that the gene duplications in primates had likely been mediated by endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences flanking the gene regions. In striking contrast to non-human primates, humans appear to have homogenized their two RHOXF2 copies by the ERV-mediated non-allelic recombination mechanism. Coding sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested multi-lineage strong positive selection on RHOXF2 during primate evolution, especially during the origins of humans and chimpanzees. All the 8 coding region polymorphic sites in human populations are non-synonymous, implying on-going selection. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that besides the preferential expression in the reproductive system, RHOXF2 is also expressed in the brain. The quantitative data suggests expression pattern divergence among primate species. RHOXF2 is a fast-evolving homeobox gene in primates. The rapid evolution and copy number changes of RHOXF2 had been driven by Darwinian positive selection acting on the male reproductive system and possibly also on the central nervous system, which sheds light on understanding the role of homeobox genes in adaptive evolution.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 10/2011; 11:298. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-11-298 · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Source