To assess the technical feasibility and safety of weekly outpatient percutaneous computed tomographic (CT)-guided intratumoral injections of interleukin-2 (IL-2) plasmid DNA in a wide variety of superficial and deep tumor sites.
Twenty-nine patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and a total of 30 lesions measuring 1.0 cm(2) or greater in accessible thoracic (n = 15) or abdominal (n = 15) locations underwent up to three cycles of six weekly intratumoral IL-2 plasmid DNA injections. CT was used to guide needle placement and injection. After injection cycle 1, patients whose tumors demonstrated stable (< or =25% increase and < or =50% decrease in product of lesion diameters) or decreased size (>50% decrease in product of lesion diameters) advanced to injection cycle 2. Patients whose lesions decreased in size by more than 50% over the course of injection cycle 2 were eligible to begin injection cycle 3. An acceptable safety and technical feasibility profile for this technique was deemed to be (a) a safety and feasibility profile similar to that of single-needle biopsy and (b) an absence of serious adverse events (as defined in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations) and/or unacceptable toxicities (as graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria).
A total of 284 intratumoral injections were performed, with a mean of 9.8 injections (range, 6-18 injections) received by each patient. Technical success (needle placement and injection of gene therapy agent) was achieved in all cases. Complications were experienced after 42 (14.8%) of the 284 injections. The most common complication was pneumothorax (at 32 [28.6%] of 112 intrathoracic injections), for which only one patient required catheter drainage. Complications occurred randomly throughout injection cycles and did not appear to increase as patients received more injections (P =.532). No patient experienced serious adverse events or unacceptable toxicities.
Percutaneous CT-guided intratumoral immunotherapy injections are technically feasible and can be safely performed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines (ie, chemoattractant cytokines) are a family of small secreted molecules that mediate leukocyte migration. It is becoming increasingly more evident that chemokines play an integral role in the initiation of a specific immune response. With respect to cancer, chemokines are being studied for both their role in tumor biology and as promising immunotherapy candidates. We review several areas of chemokine importance in tumor immunity and discuss the experimental evidence that is leading to the clinical use of this cytokine family in new treatment approaches for patients with cancer.
The Cancer Journal 07/2010; 16(4):325-35. DOI:10.1097/PPO.0b013e3181eb33bc · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnostic and therapeutic image-guided percutaneous interventions have become increasingly important in the clinical management of various conditions. Though precise needle placement via a safe route is essential for successful percutaneous interventions, it is often difficult in cases of deeply situated, small lesions. The present paper describes the efficacy of the directable needle guide (DNG), which allows manipulation of the direction of a fine needle within organs. The DNG was used in patients for needle biopsy of hepatic () and splenic () lesions and for percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for liver tumors () under sonographic or computed tomography guidance. The DNG enabled the direction of a 21- or 22-gauge needle to be successfully changed during needle advancement in all cases, allowing adjustment of the location of the needle tip or needle access root to avoid vessels, the gallbladder, and the lungs. We conclude that DNG increases the safety and ease of percutaneous interventions.
11/2012; 2013. DOI:10.5402/2013/516941
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