Cord-blood transplants from unrelated donors in patients with Hurler's syndrome.

Pediatric Stem Cell Transplant Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 06/2004; 350(19):1960-9. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa032613
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hurler's syndrome (the most severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I) causes progressive deterioration of the central nervous system and death in childhood. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation before the age of two years halts disease progression and prolongs life, but many children lack a bone marrow donor. We investigated the feasibility of using cord-blood transplants from unrelated donors and a myeloablative preparative regimen that did not involve total-body irradiation in young children with Hurler's syndrome.
Between December 1995 and October 2002, 20 consecutive children with Hurler's syndrome received busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and antithymocyte globulin before receiving cord-blood transplants from unrelated donors. The children were subsequently evaluated for engraftment, adverse effects, and effects on disease symptoms.
Cord-blood donors had normal alpha-L-iduronidase activity (mean number of cells, 10.53x10(7) per kilogram of body weight) and were discordant for up to three of six HLA markers. Neutrophil engraftment occurred a median of 24 days after transplantation. Five patients had grade II or grade III acute graft-versus-host disease; none had extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Seventeen of the 20 children were alive a median of 905 days after transplantation, with complete donor chimerism and normal peripheral-blood alpha-L-iduronidase activity (event-free survival rate, 85 percent). Transplantation improved neurocognitive performance and decreased somatic features of Hurler's syndrome.
Cord blood from unrelated donors appears to be an excellent source of stem cells for transplantation in patients with Hurler's syndrome. Sustained engraftment can be achieved without total-body irradiation. Cord-blood transplantation favorably altered the natural history of Hurler's syndrome and thus may be important to consider in young children with this form of the disease.

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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (MPS IH) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been proposed for the treatment of MPS IH patients and offers the possibility to grow into their adulthood. Precocious puberty has been described in few MPS patients. We report, to the best of our knowledge and for the first time, the initiation of the first waves of spermatogenesis fortuitously observed in seminiferous tubules of a pre-pubertal 19-month-old boy, affected by MPS IH and who did not present any clinical signs of precocious puberty. This patient benefited from testicular tissue cryopreservation before HSCT. Seminiferous tubule size, germ cell differentiation and Sertoli cell expression of androgen receptor and anti-müllerian hormone corresponded to the pattern observed in a pubertal boy. The Hurler syndrome may be responsible for the precocious initiation of spermatogenesis. A specific follow-up during childhood may be useful to confirm if such abnormal testis development is common in young boys with MPS IH and if it may lead to precocious onset of puberty in survivors despite HSCT. Furthermore, we have observed that Sertoli cell maturation (up-regulation of AR expression, down-regulation of AMH expression) occurred before the clinical signs of puberty and before the increase of testosterone plasmatic level.
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I; Hurler Syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase which affects multiple organs such as central nervous system (CNS), skeletal system, and physical appearance. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is recommended as a primary therapeutic option at an early stage of MPS I with a severe form to ameliorate CNS involvement; however, no description of pathological improvement in skeletal dysplasia has been investigated to date. We here report a 15-year-old male case with MPS I post-HSCT. This patient received successful HSCT at the age of 2 years and 1 month, followed for over 10 years. His activity of daily living including cognitive performance has been kept normal and the present height and weight are 162 cm and 55 kg. Bone deformity has been still developed, resulting in hemiepiphysiodesis of bilateral medial proximal tibia at 12 years of age and successive arthrodesis of thoraco-lumbar spine at 13 years of age; however, skeletal histopathology from surgical remnants showed substantial improvement in bone lesion with markedly reduced occurrence and cell size of vacuolated cells. After a series of surgical procedures, he became ambulant and independent in daily activity. The levels of GAGs in blood were substantially reduced. In conclusion, this long-term post-HSCT observation should shed light on a new aspect of therapeutic effect associated with skeletal pathology and GAG levels as a biomarker, indicating that HSCT is a primary choice at an early stage for not only CNS but skeletal system in combination of appropriate surgical procedures.
    03/2015; 2. DOI:10.1016/j.ymgmr.2014.12.006
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) have accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in multiple tissues which may cause coarse facial features, mental retardation, recurrent ear and nose infections, inguinal and umbilical hernias, hepatosplenomegaly, and skeletal deformities. Clinical features related to bone lesions may include marked short stature, cervical stenosis, pectus carinatum, small lungs, joint rigidity (but laxity for MPS IV), kyphoscoliosis, lumbar gibbus, and genu valgum. Patients with MPS are often wheelchair-bound and physical handicaps increase with age as a result of progressive skeletal dysplasia, abnormal joint mobility, and osteoarthritis, leading to 1) stenosis of the upper cervical region, 2) restrictive small lung, 3) hip dysplasia, 4) restriction of joint movement, and 5) surgical complications. Patients often need multiple orthopedic procedures including cervical decompression and fusion, carpal tunnel release, hip reconstruction and replacement, and femoral or tibial osteotomy through their lifetime. Current measures to intervene in bone disease progression are not perfect and palliative, and improved therapies are urgently required. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and gene therapy are available or in development for some types of MPS. Delivery of sufficient enzyme to bone, especially avascular cartilage, to prevent or ameliorate the devastating skeletal dysplasias remains an unmet challenge. The use of an anti-inflammatory drug is also under clinical study. Therapies should start at a very early stage prior to irreversible bone lesion, and damage since the severity of skeletal dysplasia is associated with level of activity during daily life. This review illustrates a current overview of therapies and their impact for bone lesions in MPS including ERT, HSCT, gene therapy, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.12.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor

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