Cord-blood transplants from unrelated donors in patients with Hurler's syndrome.

Pediatric Stem Cell Transplant Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 06/2004; 350(19):1960-9. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa032613
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hurler's syndrome (the most severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I) causes progressive deterioration of the central nervous system and death in childhood. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation before the age of two years halts disease progression and prolongs life, but many children lack a bone marrow donor. We investigated the feasibility of using cord-blood transplants from unrelated donors and a myeloablative preparative regimen that did not involve total-body irradiation in young children with Hurler's syndrome.
Between December 1995 and October 2002, 20 consecutive children with Hurler's syndrome received busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and antithymocyte globulin before receiving cord-blood transplants from unrelated donors. The children were subsequently evaluated for engraftment, adverse effects, and effects on disease symptoms.
Cord-blood donors had normal alpha-L-iduronidase activity (mean number of cells, 10.53x10(7) per kilogram of body weight) and were discordant for up to three of six HLA markers. Neutrophil engraftment occurred a median of 24 days after transplantation. Five patients had grade II or grade III acute graft-versus-host disease; none had extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Seventeen of the 20 children were alive a median of 905 days after transplantation, with complete donor chimerism and normal peripheral-blood alpha-L-iduronidase activity (event-free survival rate, 85 percent). Transplantation improved neurocognitive performance and decreased somatic features of Hurler's syndrome.
Cord blood from unrelated donors appears to be an excellent source of stem cells for transplantation in patients with Hurler's syndrome. Sustained engraftment can be achieved without total-body irradiation. Cord-blood transplantation favorably altered the natural history of Hurler's syndrome and thus may be important to consider in young children with this form of the disease.

Download full-text


Available from: Michele D Poe, Jul 01, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (MPS1-H; Hurler syndrome), early allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice. One boy and one girl aged 20.5 and 22 months, respectively, with MPS1-H received a conditioning regimen consisting of thiotepa, fludarabine, treosulfan, and ATG. Grafts were peripheral blood stem cells from unrelated donors (10/12 and 11/11 matched), that were manipulated by CD3/CD19 depletion and contained 20.3 and 28.2 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight, respectively. Both patients achieved stable hematopoietic engraftment and stable donor chimerism. Neither acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) nor other severe transplant-related complications occurred. At a follow-up of 48 and 37 months, both patients are alive and well with normal levels of α-L-iduronidase and have made major neurodevelopmental progress. Treosulfan-based conditioning offers the advantage of reduced toxicity; the use of unrelated CD3/CD19-depleted peripheral stem cell grafts allows transfusion of high CD34+ cell numbers together with a “tailored” number of CD3+ cells as well as engraftment facilitating cells in order to achieve rapid hematopoietic engraftment while reducing the risk of graft rejection and GVHD. This regimen might be an additional option when unrelated donor HSCT is considered for a patient with MPS1-H.
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 08/2014; 31(8). DOI:10.3109/08880018.2014.939794 · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impaired degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with consequent intralysosomal accumulation of undegraded products causes a group of lysosomal storage disorders known as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). Characteristically, MPSs are recognized by increased excretion in urine of partially degraded GAGs which ultimately result in progressive cell, tissue, and organ dysfunction. There are eleven different enzymes involved in the stepwise degradation of GAGs. Deficiencies in each of those enzymes result in seven different MPSs, all sharing a series of clinical features, though in variable degrees. Usually MPS are characterized by a chronic and progressive course, with different degrees of severity. Typical symptoms include organomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, and coarse facies. Central nervous system, hearing, vision, and cardiovascular function may also be affected. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular basis, enzymatic defects, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of each MPS, focusing also on the available animal models and describing potential perspectives of therapy for each one.
    01/2012; 2012:471325. DOI:10.1155/2012/471325
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) comprises a spectrum of clinical manifestations and is divided into three phenotypes reflecting clinical severity: Hurler, Hurler-Scheie, and Scheie syndromes. There may be important variations in clinical manifestations of this genetic disease in patients residing in different regions of the world. Using data from the MPS I Registry (as of September 2009), we evaluated patients from Latin America (n = 118) compared with patients from the rest of the world [ROW (n = 727)]. Phenotype distribution differed among patients in Latin America compared to ROW (Hurler 31 vs. 62%, Hurler-Scheie 36 vs. 21%, Scheie 10 vs. 11%, and unknown 22 vs. 6%). The frequency of certain symptoms, such as cardiac valve abnormalities, sleep impairment, and joint contractures, also differed between Latin America and ROW for some phenotypes. Median age at MPS I diagnosis was earlier in the ROW than Latin America for all phenotypes, and age at first treatment for Hurler and Hurler-Scheie patients was also earlier in the ROW. Hurler patients in Latin America showed a gap of 3.1 years between median ages of diagnosis and first treatment compared to only 0.5 years in the ROW. Treatment allocation in Latin America compared to ROW was as follows: enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) only, 80 vs. 45%; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) only, 0.9 vs. 27%; both ERT and HSCT, 0 vs. 16%; and neither treatment, 19 vs. 13%. These data highlight important differences in MPS I patients between Latin America and ROW in terms of phenotypic distribution, clinical manifestations, and treatment practices.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 05/2011; 34(5):1029-37. DOI:10.1007/s10545-011-9336-2 · 4.14 Impact Factor