Viral FLIP impairs survival of activated T cells and generation of CD8+ T cell memory.
ABSTRACT Viral FLIPs (vFLIPs) interfere with apoptosis signaling by death-domain-containing receptors in the TNFR superfamily (death receptors). In this study, we show that T cell-specific transgenic expression of MC159-vFLIP from the human Molluscum contagiosum virus blocks CD95-induced apoptosis in thymocytes and peripheral T cells, but also impairs postactivation survival of in vitro activated primary T cells despite normal early activation parameters. MC159 vFLIP impairs T cell development to a lesser extent than does Fas-associated death domain protein deficiency or another viral FLIP, E8. In the periphery, vFLIP expression leads to a specific deficit of functional memory CD8(+) T cells. After immunization with a protein Ag, Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells initially proliferate, but quickly disappear and fail to produce Ag-specific memory CD8(+) T cells. Viral FLIP transgenic mice exhibit impaired CD8(+) T cell responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Trypanosoma cruzi infections, and a specific defect in CD8(+) T cell recall responses to influenza virus was seen. These results suggest that vFLIP expression in T cells blocks signals necessary for the sustained survival of CD8(+) T cells and the generation of CD8(+) T cell memory. Through this mechanism, vFLIP proteins expressed by T cell tropic viruses may impair the CD8(+) T cell immune responses directed against them.
Article: Apoptotic effects of a chimeric plant virus carrying a mimotope of the hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1: role of caspases and endoplasmic reticulum-stress.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of apoptosis in the persistence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is controversial. Moreover, conflicting data on the modulation of this process by HCV proteins have been provided. We evaluated the susceptibility of peripheral lymphocytes from patients with chronic hepatitis C to apoptosis both spontaneous and after incubation with a chimeric Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) carrying 180 copies of the synthetic R9 mimotope obtained from more than 200 hypervariable region-1 sequences of HCV. Resting T lymphocytes were found to be sensitized to apoptosis as a result of chronic HCV infection. The plant virus-derived vector R9-CMV displayed a strong pro-apoptotic effect associated with activation of both caspase-8 and -9, indicating the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. A parallel R9-CMV-mediated activation of endoplasmic reticulum-stress was suggested by the significant induction of BiP/GRP78, GADD153 and caspase-12. These data contribute to define the complex HCV/host interaction, and open new prospects for developing a plant-derived antigen-presenting system to strengthen host defences against persistent pathogens.Journal of Clinical Immunology 03/2012; 32(4):866-76. · 3.08 Impact Factor
Article: Emerging roles for the death adaptor FADD in death receptor avidity and cell cycle regulation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Fas-associated death domain protein FADD is best known as an adaptor protein that senses a signal received at a death receptor and nucleates the assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex. Recent work reveals unexpected properties for this signaling protein, suggesting new roles for FADD in apoptotic signaling and in non-apoptotic functions linked to chemical modification of the FADD C-terminus. These new studies suggest novel types of high valency complexes may form in the plasma membrane and in the nucleus, raising intriguing questions as to how FADD senses the environment and responds to different signaling inputs to promote a biochemical response. In particular, we discuss the role of FADD in death receptor avidity and examine the relationship between FADD phosphorylation and subcellular localization with respect to various biological functions. Since FADD serves to modulate both apoptosis and cell cycle progression, these new findings promote the concept that differential complex assembly dictates disparate cellular processes mediated by this adaptor molecule.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 11/2006; 5(20):2332-8. · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FLIP is an antiapoptotic protein that has been demonstrated to play an important role in inflammation, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. However, it is not known whether increased expression of FLIP (FLICE inhibitory protein) in thyrocytes would alter the development of the thyroid and/or pathogenesis of thyroiditis. To examine the effects of overexpression of this antiapoptotic molecule on the thyroid, we have developed transgenic mouse lines that specifically express FLIP in thyrocytes. A DNA construct designed with an in-frame coding sequence for the E8 protein, a viral FLIP, was put under the control of the thyroglobulin (Tg) promoter (the Tg-FLIP transgene). In 8 of 12 resultant transgenic mouse lines, FLIP expression in thyrocytes driven by the Tg promoter was documented, and confirmed at RNA and protein levels. These Tg-FLIP transgenic mice were monitored for 1 year. Throughout the entire observation period, the transgenic mice remained alive and healthy without evidence of thyroid dysfunction. Adult mice were able to breed. Histologic examination of thyroids obtained at various time points did not reveal significant differences between transgenic mice and their control littermates. Therefore, transgenic mice with thyrocyte-specific expression of FLIP have normal thyroid development with no significant changes in thyroid cell death or proliferation.Thyroid 02/2006; 16(1):1-8. · 4.79 Impact Factor