Management of rectal lymphoma.

Department of Surgery, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont.
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie (Impact Factor: 1.27). 05/2004; 47(2):142-3.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is uncommon but not rare. This paper aims to review the recent evidence for the management of perforated NHL of the intestine, consider when chemotherapy should be commenced and examine the likely outcomes and prognosis for patients presenting as surgical emergencies with this condition. MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were searched using intestinal lymphoma, clinical presentation, perforation, management and prognosis. The full text of relevant articles was retrieved and reference lists checked for additional articles. Emergency surgery was required at disease presentation for between 11 and 64 % of intestinal NHL cases. Perforation occurs in 1-25 % of cases, and also occurs whilst on chemotherapy for NHL. Intestinal bleeding occurs in 2-22 % of cases. Obstruction occurs more commonly in small bowel (5-39 %) than large bowel NHL and intussusceptions occur in up to 46 %. Prognosis is generally poor, especially for T cell lymphomas. There is a lack of quality evidence for the elective and emergency treatment of NHL involving the small and large intestine. There is a lack of information regarding the impact an emergency presentation has on the timing of postoperative chemotherapy and overall prognosis. It is proposed that in order to develop evidence-based treatment protocols, there should be an intestinal NHL registry.
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of colorectal and anal malignancies are adenocarcinomas and squamous cell cancers, respectively. Despite the predominance of these neoplasms in these locations, rare histiotypes of the colon, rectum, and anus do occur. These histotypes include but are not limited to lymphoma, melanoma, diffuse cavernous hemangioma, and sarcomas, such as leiomyosarcoma or Kaposi's sarcoma. These tumors often present challenges to clinicians with respect to diagnosis, staging, management, and pathology because of their unfamiliarity. A Medline search using "colon," "rectum,"anus," "lymphoma," "melanoma," "diffuse cavernous hemangioma," "squamous cell carcinoma," "carcinoid," "sarcoma," "leiomyosarcoma," "Kaposi's sarcoma," "Paget's disease," "Bowen's disease," and "basal cell carcinoma" as key words was performed as well as a cross-referencing of the bibliography cited in each work. Rare tumors of the colon, rectum, and anus present diagnostic and management dilemmas for clinicians. Because of their infrequency and poor prognosis, the optimal management of these tumors is controversial. For some histotypes, such as squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoids of the rectum, treatment depends on location and size of the tumor. For uncommon anal lesions, such as Bowen's disease, Paget's disease, and basal cell carcinoma, wide local excision (WLE) with negative margins is the standard of care. For other lesions such as anorectal melanoma or leiomyosarcoma, abdominal perineal resection versus WLE is still being debated. Because the optimal treatment of these tumors is still unclear, we recommend a multidisciplinary approach including a surgeon, primary care physician, medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and pathologist to offer the patient the best outcome.
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