Risk factors and health determinants in older Italians.
ABSTRACT According to a WHO estimate, 50% of the total burden of diseases in men and 25% in women for the EURO-A group (which includes the highly developed countries of the WHO European Region) are attributable to unhealthy life-styles. The aim of the present study was to analyze anthropometric, biochemical and behavioral risk factors using data from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA), a population-based study of older Italians initiated in 1992 to study those chronic conditions and attendant risk factors that contribute most substantially to morbidity, disability and mortality.
In this descriptive study, we calculated the means and distribution of risk factors in a sample of 5632 Italian subjects aged 65-84 by gender, age class and geographic area, and identified the proportion of these subgroups at higher risk. Analyses include data from the first (1992-93) and second (1995-96) examinations of this cohort.
Over 64% of older Italian participants were overweight in 1992. More than 70% had blood pressure in the borderline or definitely hypertensive range, and almost one-third had hyperlipidemic serum cholesterol levels, including subjects receiving treatment for these conditions. Based on Body Mass Index, more women than men were obese (27 vs 15%) and more women than men were hyperlipidemic in all age classes (38 vs 23%). Approximately 13% of the sample had glucose levels exceeding the recommended 126 mg/dL. Men were found to consume on average about 41 grams of alcohol daily and women 17 g/d. Lastly, we found that approximately 20% of men and 8% of women were smokers in 1992 but that smoking tended to diminish with age.
As the Italian population rapidly ages, the burden of disease and disability is increasing, necessitating more focused, immediate and effective prevention programs. We have identified a number of critical concerns ripe for intervention. The results of this study can better focus such efforts and help guide long-term health planning and policy.
Article: Diabetes and osteoporosis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Care of patients with diabetes should include assessment of bone health. The extension of the average life expectancy of people with diabetes, which has accompanied improvements in medical care, has also increased the significance of osteoporosis. In addition to the usual causes of osteoporosis associated with aging, bone health is also compromised by diabetes. Studies on bone involvement in patients with diabetes mellitus have generated conflicting results, largely because of the pathogenetic complexity of the condition. It is now clear that patients with type 1 diabetes have lower bone mineral density (BMD) and a higher risk of fractures. Evidence is emerging that patients with type 2 diabetes who have complications are also at increased risk of certain types of osteoporotic fractures, despite having a higher BMD when compared to patients with type 1 diabetes. Although many factors, including number and type of falls, visual impairment, neuropathy, and reduced muscle strength, influence the probability of fractures, the most significant factor seems to be the strength of the bone itself. Thus, sarcopenia, a reduction in muscle mass and muscle strength, is considered one of the main determinants of bone fragility. The aim of this review is to examine the occurrence of osteoporosis in type 1 and type 2 diabetes.Aging clinical and experimental research 09/2008; 20(4):280-9. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and diagnostic procedures of the multicenter community-based prospective Italian Project on the Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease (I.PR.E.A.). The study is aimed at estimating the prevalence and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the preclinical phase, examining the natural history of cognitive decline without dementia (mainly AD) in the Italian population, and identifying risk factors or health determinants related or associated with various health outcomes. METHODS: Both cross-sectional and longitudinal phases will be performed in 4800 elderly subjects aged 65-84 years. The sample will be selected from the registries of 12 Italian rural and urban municipalities, with an interval of one year between examinations. The study population will undergo several screening examinations, including personal and informant interviews by means of a structured ad hoc questionnaire, physical and neurological examination, laboratory tests, genetic markers and a neuropsychological battery. Neuroimaging screening will also be carried out in a subgroup of subjects positive for cognitive impairment without dementia. The longitudinal phase will include all subjects who, during the cross-sectional survey, are identified as affected by cognitive impairment without dementia, and will aim at assessing the incidence and natural history of cognitive impairment without dementia and the degree of disease progression from the earliest stage. This is the first systematic prospective study on the preclinical phase of AD in Italy.Aging clinical and experimental research 03/2005; 17(1):29-34. · 1.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To identify the relationship among cognitive status, psychological conditions, anthropometric measurements and life-style in a sample of elderly Italian men and women. Three hundred and six volunteers for ZINCAGE Project recruited. The sample was made up of healthy older adults living in the Marche Region aged 65 and over. All elderly were given a complete medical, anthropometric assessment, and psycho-social evaluation. Overall, the participants perceived themselves to be in very good or good (22%) or fair (69%) health; only 9% reported a poor health status. The 46% of the sample fell within the normal body mass index (BMI) range, though 38% were overweight, 12% were obese, and only 4% were underweight. In both sexes, BMI significantly decreased with age (p<0.001). BMI was positively associated with performing sedentary activities (r=0.188; p<0.001). Levels of both sedentary (r=0.221; p<0.001) and non-sedentary (r=0.258; p<0.001) leisure activities were positively associated with education level (p<0.05). It was found that lower scores of physical activity were associated to higher scores of Geriatric Depression Scale (r=-0.425; p<0.01), lower scores of Mini Mental State Examination (r=0.266; p<0.001) and higher score of Perceived Stress Scale (r=-0.131; p<0.05). Men and women lead different lifestyles and have a different psychological status, with advancing age consequently stressing the need for healthy lifestyle programmes particularly in the case of overweight and obese elderly people.The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 08/2010; 14(7):515-22. · 2.39 Impact Factor