Continuation treatment of chronic depression: a comparison of nefazodone, cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and their combination.

Department of Psychiatry, Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA.
Psychopharmacology bulletin (Impact Factor: 0.5). 02/2003; 37(4):73-87.
Source: PubMed


Little is known about the relative benefits of psychotherapy, medication, and combined treatment as continuation therapies for chronic forms of major depressive disorder (MDD) after a positive response to acute treatment. We hypothesize that combined treatment would demonstrate superior continuation phase outcomes compared to either monotherapy, as evidenced by lower relapse rates and greater rates of improvement from partial to full remission. We report 16-week continuation phase outcomes for 324 patients who had participated in either the acute phase of a randomized multicenter trial of nefazodone, Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), or combination therapy (COMB) for chronic forms of MDD. Patients entering the continuation phase had either fully or partially remitted after 12 weeks of acute phase treatment. The primary efficacy measure was the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. For patients in remission at acute phase exit, 73.3% (107/146) maintained their remitted status at endpoint of the continuation phase. Of those having a partial remission at acute phase exit, 52.9% (92/174) achieved full remission by end of continuation. A greater proportion of patients maintained a partial or full remission status on COMB (90%) compared to nefazodone (80%, p=0.011) or to CBASP (82%, p=0.042). These differences reflected greater symptom re-emergence in the partial remission groups on CBASP and nefazodone monotherapy compared to COMB. Continuation treatment assignment was not randomized or blinded. There was no placebo group. Most patients with chronic forms of MDD sustained their acute phase response and more than 50% of partial remitters achieved full remission while continuing treatment with nefazodone, CBASP, or COMB. COMB was associated with less symptom re-emergence during the continuation phase than either monotherapy, particularly for partial remitters.

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Available from: John C Markowitz, May 09, 2014
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    • "This suggestion is contrary to conventional wisdom, which suggests psychotherapy is more likely to benefit non-melancholic patients. However, therapies such as Cognitive Behavior Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) (McCullough, 2000) combined with antidepressant medication have been reported to be superior to monotherapy for achieving partial or full remission in MDD (Kocsis et al., 2003). Hirschfeld et al. (2002) also found combination therapy (CBASP and nefazdone) to be more effective for improving social functioning, an improvement that appeared to be independent of depression severity. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study seeks to provide a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of baseline clinical and psychological features and treatment response characteristics that differentiate Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) outpatients with and without melancholic features. Reflecting the emphasis in DSM-5, we also include impairment and distress. Methods: Participants were assessed pre-treatment on clinical features (severity, risk factors, comorbid conditions, illness course), psychological profile (personality, emotion regulation), functional capacity (social and occupational function, quality of life) and distress/coping (negativity bias, emotional resilience, social skills, satisfaction with life). Participants were randomized to sertraline, escitalopram or venlafaxine extended-release and re-assessed post-treatment at 8 weeks regarding remission, response, and change in impairment and distress. Results: Patients with melancholic features (n1⁄4339; 33.7%) were distinguished clinically from non- melancholics by more severe depressive symptoms and greater exposure to abuse in childhood. Psychologically, melancholic patients were defined by introversion, and a greater use of suppression to regulate negative emotion. Melancholics also had poorer capacity for social and occupational function, and physical and psychological quality of life, along with poorer coping, reflected in less emotional resilience and capacity for social skills. Post-treatment, melancholic patients had lower remission and response, but some of this effect was due to the more severe symptoms pre-treatment. The distress/ coping outcome measure of capacity for social skills remained significantly lower for melancholic participants. Limitations: Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study, causal pathways cannot be concluded. Conclusions: Findings provide new insights into a melancholic profile of reduced ability to function interpersonally or effectively deal with one's emotions. This distinctly poorer capacity for social skills remained post-treatment. The pre-treatment profile may account for some of the difficulty in achieving remission or response with treatment.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 174:493-502. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.046 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "The optimal relapse prevention treatment for chronic depression is less clear. Continuation treatment using a combination of medication and cognitive behavioral therapy seems to be more effective in preventing relapse than either monotherapy (Kocsis et al. 2003), but systematic reviews to investigate the effectiveness of various treatment options are still needed to shed light on this important clinical issue (Kriston et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is commonly chronic and/or recurrent. We aimed to determine whether a chronic and/or recurrent course of MDD is associated with acute and longer-term MDD treatment outcomes. This cohort study recruited out-patients aged 18-75 years with non-psychotic MDD from 18 primary and 23 psychiatric care clinics across the USA. Participants were grouped as: chronic (index episode >2 years) and recurrent (n = 398); chronic non-recurrent (n=257); non-chronic recurrent (n=1614); and non-chronic non-recurrent (n = 387). Acute treatment was up to 14 weeks of citalopram (≤ 60 mg/day) with up to 12 months of follow-up treatment. The primary outcomes for this report were remission [16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Rated (QIDS-SR(16)) ≤ 5] or response (≥ 50% reduction from baseline in QIDS-SR(16)) and time to first relapse [first QIDS-SR16 by Interactive Voice Response (IVR) ≥ 11]. Most participants (85%) had a chronic and/or recurrent course; 15% had both. Chronic index episode was associated with greater sociodemographic disadvantage. Recurrent course was associated with earlier age of onset and greater family histories of depression and substance abuse. Remission rates were lowest and slowest for those with chronic index episodes. For participants in remission entering follow-up, relapse was most likely for the chronic and recurrent group, and least likely for the non-chronic, non-recurrent group. For participants not in remission when entering follow-up, prior course was unrelated to relapse. Recurrent MDD is the norm for out-patients, of whom 15% also have a chronic index episode. Chronic and recurrent course of MDD may be useful in predicting acute and long-term MDD treatment outcomes.
    Psychological Medicine 10/2011; 42(6):1131-49. DOI:10.1017/S0033291711002170 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    • "According to the results of Keller et al. (2000), 73% of these patients can be effectively treated if CBASP is combined with antidepressant medication. CBASP can also be an alternative for patients who are not motivated for or refractory to pharmacological treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: 'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP) is a form of psychotherapy specifically developed for patients with chronic depression. In a study in the U.S., remarkable favorable effects of CBASP have been demonstrated. However, no other studies have as yet replicated these findings and CBASP has not been tested outside the United States. This protocol describes a randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of CBASP in the Netherlands. The purpose of the present paper is to report the study protocol of a multisite randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of 'Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy' (CBASP) for chronic depression in the Netherlands. In this study, CBASP in combination with medication, will be tested versus usual secondary care in combination with medication. The aim is to recruit 160 patients from three mental health care organizations. Depressive symptoms will be assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks, 16 weeks, 32 weeks and 52 weeks, using the 28-item Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology (IDS). Effect modification by co morbid anxiety, alcohol consumption, general and social functioning and working alliance will be tested. GEE analyses of covariance, controlling for baseline value and center will be used to estimate the overall treatment effectiveness (difference in IDS score) at post-treatment and follow up. The primary analysis will be by 'intention to treat' using double sided tests. An economic analysis will compare the two groups in terms of mean costs and cost-effectiveness from a societal perspective. The study will provide an answer to the question whether the favorable effects of CBASP can be replicated outside the US. The Dutch Cochrane Center, NTR1090.
    BMC Psychiatry 02/2008; 8(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-8-18 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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