Properties of radicals formed by the irradiation of wool fibers.
ABSTRACT Wool fibers of different sample conditions were irradiated in different atmospheres by (60)Co gamma-rays and were studied by electron spin resonance method (ESR). It was found that a large percentage of the alpha-carbon radicals of polymer main chain were more long-lived radicals. The ESR measurements of irradiated cortex samples of the wool fibers proved that most radicals from the cortex were long-lived ones. Low water content (as low as 27.5%) in the reaction system did not greatly affect the radical formation, but higher water contents would reduce the radical concentrations dramatically and accelerate their decaying process. The results will be of help in property modification of wool products by radiation graft copolymerization.
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ABSTRACT: Dosimetry based on the detection by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of ionizing radiation-induced radicals is an established method for the retrospective dosimetry of past exposures and the dosimetry of potentially exposed persons in radiological emergencies. The dose is estimated by measuring the physical damage induced in materials contained in objects placed on or next to the potentially exposed person. The aim of this paper is to survey the current literature about methodologies and materials that have been proposed for EPR dosimetry, in order to identify those that could be suitable for population triage according to criteria such as ubiquity, non invasiveness and easy sample collection, presence of a post-irradiation EPR signal, negligible background signal, linearity of dose-response relationship, minimum detection limit and post-irradiation signal stability. The paper will survey the features of sugar, plastics, glass, clothing tissues, and solid biological tissues (nails, hair and calcified tissues).Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanita 01/2009; 45(3):287-96. · 0.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The wool fibre has a complex morphology, consisting of an outer layer of cuticle scales surrounding an inner cortex. These two components are hard to separate effectively except by using harsh chemical treatments, making it difficult to determine the susceptibility of the different components of the fibre to photoyellowing. An approach to this problem based on mechanical fibre modification is described. To expose the inner cortex of wool to different degrees, clean wool fibres were converted into 'powders' of various fineness via mechanical chopping, air-jet milling, ball milling or their combination. Four types of powdered wool (samples A, B, C and D) were produced with reducing particle size distributions and an increasing level of surface damage as observed using SEM. Sample A contained essentially intact short fibre snippets and sample D contained a large amount of exposed cortical materials. Samples B and C contained a mixture of short fibre snippets and cortical materials. Solid wool discs were then compressed from the corresponding powder samples in a polished stainless steel die to enable colour measurement and UV irradiation studies. ATR-FTIR studies on powder discs demonstrated a small shift in the amide I band from 1644cm(-1) for disc A to 1654cm(-1) for disc D due to the different structures of the wool cuticle and cortex, in agreement with previous studies. Similarly an increase in the intensity ratio of the amide I to amide II band (1540cm(-1)) was observed for disc D, which contains a higher fraction of cortical material at the surface of the disc. Discs prepared from sample D appeared the lightest in colour before exposure and had the slowest photoyellowing rate, whereas discs made from powders A-C with a higher level of cuticle coverage were more yellow before exposure and experienced a faster rate of photoyellowing. This suggests that the yellow chromophores of wool may be more prevalent in cuticle scales, and that wool photoyellowing occurs to a greater extent in the cuticle than in the cortex. Photo-induced chemiluminescence measurements showed that sample D had a higher chemiluminescence intensity after exposure to UVA radiation and a faster decay rate than samples A and B. Thus one of the roles of the wool cuticle may be to protect the cortex by quenching of free radical oxidation during exposure to the UV wavelengths present in sunlight.Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 07/2008; 92(3):135-43. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is now an increased need for accident dosimetry due to the increased risk of significant exposure to ionizing radiation from terrorism or accidents. In such scenarios, dose measurements should be made in individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to enable effective triage. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a physical method of high potential for meeting this need, providing direct measurements of the radiation-induced radicals, which are unambiguous signatures of exposure to ionizing radiation. For individual retrospective dosimetry, EPR in tooth enamel is a proven and effective technique when isolated teeth can be obtained. There are some promising developments that may make these measurements feasible without the need to remove the teeth, but their field applicability remains to be demonstrated. However, currently it is difficult under emergency conditions to obtain tooth enamel in sufficient amounts for accurate dose measurements. Since fingernails are much easier to sample, they can be used in potentially exposed populations to determine if they were exposed to life-threatening radiation doses. Unfortunately, only a few studies have been carried out on EPR radiation-induced signals in fingernails, and, while there are some promising aspects, the reported results were generally inconclusive. In this present paper, we report the results of a systematic investigation of the potential use of fingernails as retrospective radiation dosimeters.Radiation Measurements. 01/2009;