Effects of prior heavy-intensity exercise on pulmonary O2 uptake and muscle deoxygenation kinetics in young and older adult humans.
ABSTRACT Pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2p) and muscle deoxygenation kinetics were examined during moderate-intensity cycling (80% lactate threshold) without warm-up and after heavy-intensity warm-up exercise in young (n = 6; 25 +/- 3 yr) and older (n = 5; 68 +/- 3 yr) adults. We hypothesized that heavy warm-up would speed VO2p kinetics in older adults consequent to an improved intramuscular oxygenation. Subjects performed step transitions (n = 4; 6 min) from 20 W to moderate-intensity exercise preceded by either no warm-up or heavy-intensity warm-up (6 min). VO2p was measured breath by breath. Oxy-, deoxy-(HHb), and total hemoglobin and myoglobin (Hb(tot)) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured continuously by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). VO2p (phase 2; tau) and HHb data were fit with a monoexponential model. After heavy-intensity warm-up, oxyhemoglobin (older subjects: 13 +/- 9 microM; young subjects: 9 +/- 8 microM) and Hb(tot) (older subjects: 12 +/- 8 microM; young subjects: 14 +/- 10 microM) were elevated (P < 0.05) relative to the no warm-up pretransition baseline. In older adults, tauVO2p adapted at a faster rate (P < 0.05) after heavy warm-up (30 +/- 7 s) than no warm-up (38 +/- 5 s), whereas in young subjects, tauVO2p was similar in no warm-up (26 +/- 7 s) and heavy warm-up (25 +/- 5 s). HHb adapted at a similar rate in older and young adults after no warm-up; however, in older adults after heavy warm-up, the adaptation of HHb was slower (P < 0.01) compared with young and no warm-up. These data suggest that, in older adults, VO2p kinetics may be limited by a slow adaptation of muscle blood flow and O2 delivery.
Article: Heliox increases quadriceps muscle oxygen delivery during exercise in COPD patients with and without dynamic hyperinflation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Some reports suggest that heliox breathing during exercise may improve peripheral muscle oxygen availability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Besides COPD patients who dynamically hyperinflate during exercise (hyperinflators), there are patients who do not hyperinflate (non-hyperinflators). As heliox breathing may differently affect cardiac output in hyperinflators (by increasing preload and decreasing afterload of both ventricles) and non-hyperinflators (by increasing venous return) during exercise, it was reasoned that heliox administration would improve peripheral muscle oxygen delivery possibly by different mechanisms in those two COPD categories. Chest wall volume and respiratory muscle activity were determined during constant-load exercise at 75% peak capacity to exhaustion, while breathing room air or normoxic heliox in 17 COPD patients: 9 hyperinflators (forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 39 ± 5% predicted), and 8 non-hyperinflators (forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 48 ± 5% predicted). Quadriceps muscle blood flow was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green dye. Hyperinflators and non-hyperinflators demonstrated comparable improvements in endurance time during heliox (231 ± 23 and 257 ± 28 s, respectively). At exhaustion in room air, expiratory muscle activity (expressed by peak-expiratory gastric pressure) was lower in hyperinflators than in non-hyperinflators. In hyperinflators, heliox reduced end-expiratory chest wall volume and diaphragmatic activity, and increased arterial oxygen content (by 17.8 ± 2.5 ml/l), whereas, in non-hyperinflators, heliox reduced peak-expiratory gastric pressure and increased systemic vascular conductance (by 11.0 ± 2.8 ml·min(-1)·mmHg(-1)). Quadriceps muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery significantly improved during heliox compared with room air by a comparable magnitude (in hyperinflators by 6.1 ± 1.3 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) and 1.3 ± 0.3 ml O(2)·min(-1)·100 g(-1), and in non-hyperinflators by 7.2 ± 1.6 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1) and 1.6 ± 0.3 ml O(2)·min(-1)·100 g(-1), respectively). Despite similar increase in locomotor muscle oxygen delivery with heliox in both groups, the mechanisms of such improvements were different: 1) in hyperinflators, heliox increased arterial oxygen content and quadriceps blood flow at similar cardiac output, whereas 2) in non-hyperinflators, heliox improved central hemodynamics and increased systemic vascular conductance and quadriceps blood flow at similar arterial oxygen content.Journal of Applied Physiology 08/2012; 113(7):1012-23. · 3.75 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of priming exercise on the speed of adjustment of muscle oxidative metabolism at the onset of moderate-intensity step transitions in older adults.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with a functional decline of the oxidative metabolism due to progressive limitations of both O(2) delivery and utilization. Priming exercise (PE) increases the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism during successive moderate-intensity transitions. We tested the hypothesis that such improvement is due to a better matching of O(2) delivery to utilization within the working muscles. In 21 healthy older adults (65.7 ± 5 yr), we measured contemporaneously noninvasive indexes of the overall speed of adjustment of the oxidative metabolism (i.e., pulmonary Vo(2) kinetics), of the bulk O(2) delivery (i.e., cardiac output), and of the rate of muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxygenated hemoglobin, HHb) during moderate-intensity step transitions, either with (ModB) or without (ModA) prior PE. The local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization was evaluated by the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio index. The overall speed of adjustment of the Vo(2) kinetics was significantly increased in ModB compared with ModA (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the kinetics of cardiac output was unaffected by PE. At the muscle level, ModB was associated with a significant reduction of the "overshoot" in the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio compared with ModA (P < 0.05), suggesting an improved O(2) delivery. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that, in older adults, PE, prior to moderate-intensity exercise, beneficially affects the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism due to an acute improvement of the local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 03/2012; 302(10):R1158-66. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to compare the cardiac parasympathetic behavior during the recovery phase of an incremental exercise (IE), before and after an aerobic training (AT) program. For this, fifteen healthy sedentary young people, aged between 18 and 25 years, underwent the IE in treadmill with initial velocity of 4.0 km/h and increments of 1.0 km/h/min until exhaustion. After the MIE the heart beats were recorded during 10min. The register was sent to a computer to be processed the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis using the index pNN50, RMSSD and HF (u.n.) of the times 0-5min and 5-10min post-effort. After, underwent an AT with 12 sessions of 40min at intensity equivalent to 65% of HR peak. Subsequently, the IE was repeated until they reached the same speed of IE of the first phase before AT. The data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test with significant level of p<0.05. The HRV analysis 0-5min and 5-10min showed no differences between the data, with: a) 0-5min: pNN50 (0.3±0.7 % pre AT and 0.4±1.1 % post AT), RMSSD (8.4±5.5ms pre AT and 9.6±7.5ms post AT), HF(u.n.) 27.6±17.0% pre AT and 28.2± 13.8% post AT); and b) 5-10min: pNN50 (0.1±0.4% pre AT and 0.4±0.8% post AT), RMSSD (8.0±4.6ms pre AT and 10.6±7.9ms post AT), HF(u.n.) 27.6±18.3% pre AT and 29.8± 17.5% post AT). The application of a short duration AT was not effective to increase the parasympathetic nervous system interference on the heart during the recovery phase after IE.Journal of Physical Activity and Health 10/2012; 17(5):403-413.