Kinetics and mechanism of the nucleophilic displacement reactions of chloroacetanilide herbicides: investigation of alpha-substituent effects.
ABSTRACT The ease with which alpha-chloroacetanilide herbicides undergo displacement reactions with strong nucleophiles, and their recalcitrance toward weak ones, is intimately related to their herbicidal properties and environmental chemistry. In this study, we investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of nucleophilic substitution reactions of propachlor and alachlor in aqueous solution. The role played by the alpha-amide group was examined by including several structurally related analogs of propachlor possessing modified alpha substituents. The overall second-order nature of the reaction, the negative DeltaS(double dagger) values, the weak influence of ionic strength on reactivity, and structure-reactivity trends together support an intermolecular S(N)2 mechanism rather than an intramolecular reaction for alpha-chloroacetanilides as well as the alpha-chlorothioacetanilide analog of propachlor. In contrast, the alpha-methylene analog exhibits kinetics and a salt effect consistent with anchimeric assistance by the aniline nitrogen. Electronic interactions with the alpha-anilide substituent, rather than neighboring group participation, can be inferred to govern the reactivity of alpha-chloroacetanilides toward nucleophiles.
Article: Identification of volatile/semivolatile products derived from chemical remediation of cis-1,3-dichloropropene by thiosulfate.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalent use of soil fumigants has resulted in air pollution in some agricultural regions. Our previous research showed that application of thiosulfate fertilizers at the soil surface may offer an effective and economical approach to reduce the emission of halogenated fumigants via a chemical remediation process. In this fumigant emission-reduction strategy, volatile 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) reacts with thiosulfate to generate a nonvolatile Bunte salt (thiosulfate derivative of 1,3-D). However, the decomposition of the Bunte salt may be associated with the production of perceptible odors. This study investigated the stability of this reaction product in different environmental media. Hydrolysis experiments demonstrated that the thiosulfate derivative was relatively stable in neutral and moderately acidic aqueous solutions. In contrast, the thiosulfate derivative was readily converted to a dialkyl disulfide via a base hydrolysis process in pH 10 buffer solution. In a strongly acidic solution, a mercaptan and a dialkyl disulfide compound were detected as two primary hydrolysis products. In soil, this initial reaction product underwent a series of biotic conversions to generate several volatile or semivolatile organic sulfur compounds. The formation and distribution of four volatile/semivolatile products in the air and soil were detected in different soils treated with the thiosulfate derivative of 1,3-D. This study indicated that odors occurring in soil treated with halogenated fumigants and thiosulfate fertilizers might arise from the generation and release of these and other volatile/semivolatile organic sulfur products. The environmental fate and effects of such volatile/semivolatile sulfur compounds should be considered in the application of sulfur-containing fertilizers in fumigated fields.Environmental Science and Technology 10/2007; 41(18):6454-9. · 5.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chlorpyrifos-methyl is widely used in the control of insects on certain stored grain, including wheat, barley, oats, rice, and sorghum. The reactions of chlorpyrifos-methyl with hydrogensulfide/bisulfide (H2S/HS-), polysulfides (Sn(2-)), thiophenolate (PhS-), and thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) were examined in well-defined aqueous solutions over a pH range from 5 to 9. The rates are first-order in the concentration of the different reduced sulfur species. The resulting data indicate that chlorpyrifos-methyl undergoes a S(N)2 reaction with the reduced sulfur species. The transformation products indicate that the nucleophilic substitution of reduced sulfur species occurs at the carbon atom of a methoxy group to form the desmethyl chlorpyrifos-methyl. The formation of trichloropyridinol, a minor degradation product, could be attributed entirelyto hydrolysis. The reaction of chlorpyrifos-methyl with thiophenolate leads to the formation of the corresponding methylated sulfur compound. The resulting pseudo-first-order rate constant for chlorpyrifos-methyl with bisulfide yielded a second-order rate constant of 2.2 (+/- 0.1) x 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1). The determined second-order rate constants show that the reaction of chlorpyrifos-methyl with HS- is of the same order of magnitude as the reaction of chlorpyrifos-methyl with S2O3(2-) with a second-order rate constant of 1.0 (+/- 0.1) x 10(-3) M(-1) s(-1). The second-order rate constant for chlorpyrifos-methyl with polysulfides (3.1 (+/- 0.3) x 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude as the one with thiophenolate (2.1 (+/- 0.2) x 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1)). The second-order rate constant for the reaction of polysulfides is approximately 1 order of magnitude greater than that for the reaction with HS-. When the determined second-order rate constants are multiplied by the concentration of HS-, polysulfides and thiosulfate reported in salt marshes and porewaters, predicted half-lives show that the inorganic reduced sulfur species present at environmentally relevant concentrations may represent an important sink for phosphorothionate triesters in coastal marine environments.Environmental Science and Technology 03/2006; 40(3):784-90. · 5.23 Impact Factor