Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1: its structure, biological activity and role in tumorigenesis (Review).

Department of Laboratory Diagnostics and Immunology, National Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Warsaw, Poland.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.88). 07/2004; 13(6):759-66. DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.13.6.759
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), is a unique member of serpin superfamily, the primary regulator of plasminogen activation and therefore essential factor regulating physiological thrombotic/fibrinolytic balance in vivo. Via interactions with integrins and extracellular matrix components it orchestrates also cell adhesion and migration. Therefore, PAI-1 is considered one of the key regulators of tumor invasion and metastasis, as well as cancer-related angiogenesis. This review summarizes recent findings on the structure and functional activity of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, and current opinions on its role in tumorigenesis.

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    ABSTRACT: The plasminogen activation system (PAS) plays an essential role in tissue proteolysis in physiological and pathological processes. Periodontitis is a chronic infection associated with increased proteolysis driven by plasminogen activation. In this comprehensive review, we summarise the effects of PAS in wound healing, tissue remodelling, inflammation, bacterial infection, and in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Specifically, we discuss the role of plasminogen activators (PAs), including urokinase PA (uPA), tissue-type PA (tPA), PA inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and 2 (PAI-2) and activated plasminogen in periodontal tissue, where their concentrations can reach much higher values than those found in other parts of the body. We also discuss whether PA deficiencies can have effects on periodontal tissue. We conclude that in periodontal disease, PAS is unbalanced and equalizing its function can improve the clinical periodontal tissue condition.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 02/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1653 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This review summarizes our current knowledge of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) deficiency and proposes some novel treatments for this condition. PAI-1 is a fast acting inhibitor of tissue and urokinase plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA). PAI-1 controls/slows clot lysis triggered by tPA activated plasminogen. PAI-1 deficiency was once considered to be an extremely rare disorder characterized by frequent and prolonged bleeding episodes. PAI-1 deficiency is now thought to be more frequent than initially reported and is known to be caused by mutations in the PAI-1 gene that produce a dysfunctional PAI-1 protein or slow the secretion of PAI-1 into the circulation. PAI-1 deficiency is characterized by hyperfibrinolysis that results in frequent bleeding episodes. Patients with this condition form normal blood clots that are quickly lysed by unopposed tPA-activated plasmin. Spontaneous bleeding is rare in PAI-1 deficient patients, but moderate hemorrhaging of the knees, elbows, nose, and gums can be triggered by mild trauma. Additionally, prolonged bleeding after surgery is common and menstrual bleeding may be severe. Moderate PAI-1 deficiency is associated with a lifelong bleeding tendency, but severe deficiencies can be life-threatening. The diagnosis of this disorder remains challenging due to the lack of a clear definition of PAI-1 deficiency as well as a lack of standardized tests. Patients with mild PAI-1 deficiency may be treated with antifibrinolytic agents (ε-aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid); however, not all patients respond well to these treatments. These patients may be treated with wild-type PAI-1; however, this molecule quickly converts into its inactive form. We propose to use PAI-1 with an extended half-life to treat these patients.
    Cardiovascular & Haematological Disorders - Drug Targets(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders) 08/2013; 13(2):144-50. DOI:10.2174/1871529X11313020007#sthash.2JWSol0Q.dpuf
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism frequency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) (rs1799889) 4G/5G in patients with lung cancer. Methods: In this study, 286 genomic DNAs (154 lung cancer patients+132 subjects without lung cancer) were analyzed. Polymorphisms were determined by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, with 4G and 5G allele-specific primers. PCR products were assessed by a charge-coupled device camera and exposed to 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The frequencies of the PAI-1 gene 4G/5G genotypes were found to be 21% 4G/4G, 16% 4G/5G, and 62% 5G/5G in the control group and 31.4% 4G/4G, 30.8% 4G/5G, and 37.8% 5G/5G in the patient group. It was determined that the 5G/5G genotype frequency was high in patients in comparison with other genotypes. Conclusions: This study found a statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to genotype distribution. Consequently, we can say that the PAI-1 gene 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with lung cancer in Turkey.
    Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 06/2014; 18(8). DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2014.0061 · 1.15 Impact Factor

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