Effect of biventricular pacing therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with severe congestive heart failure.
ABSTRACT Biventricular pacing (BVP) therapy has recently emerged as an effective treatment for patients with moderate to severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and ventricular asynchrony all over the world. However, this therapy is not yet available in Japan. We evaluated the effects of BVP in patients with severe CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
Four patients with medically refractory severe CHF due to DCM in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV heart failure underwent BVP therapy. We combined the implantation of the left ventricular (LV) epicardial lead via small thoracotomy following right atrial and ventricular intravenous leads under general anesthesia. We evaluated to determine whether improvements of ventricular function, ventricular size, mitral regurgitation, functional status, frequency of hospitalization, and quality of life were associated with BVP therapy.
BVP improved LV systolic function, decreased LV size and mitral regurgitation, and shortened prolonged QRS interval. The patients' symptoms, exercise tolerance, frequency of hospitalization, and quality of life were also dramatically improved by BVP. Furthermore, combination of BVP and oral administration of amiodarone significantly prevented recurrence of ventricular tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and maintained sinus rhythm for a long period.
In view of these findings, BVP therapy may contribute to the development of new therapeutic method for patients with severe CHF due to DCM.
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ABSTRACT: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy with backup ventricular pacing increases survival in patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Most currently implanted ICD devices provide dual-chamber pacing therapy. The most common comorbid cause for mortality in this population is congestive heart failure. To determine the efficacy of dual-chamber pacing compared with backup ventricular pacing in patients with standard indications for ICD implantation but without indications for antibradycardia pacing. The Dual Chamber and VVI Implantable Defibrillator (DAVID) Trial, a single-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. A total of 506 patients with indications for ICD therapy were enrolled between October 2000 and September 2002 at 37 US centers. All patients had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 40% or less, no indication for antibradycardia pacemaker therapy, and no persistent atrial arrhythmias. All patients had an ICD with dual-chamber, rate-responsive pacing capability implanted. Patients were randomly assigned to have the ICDs programmed to ventricular backup pacing at 40/min (VVI-40; n = 256) or dual-chamber rate-responsive pacing at 70/min (DDDR-70; n = 250). Maximal tolerated medical therapy for left ventricular dysfunction, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers, was prescribed to all patients. Composite end point of time to death or first hospitalization for congestive heart failure. One-year survival free of the composite end point was 83.9% for patients treated with VVI-40 compared with 73.3% for patients treated with DDDR-70 (relative hazard, 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-2.44). The components of the composite end point, mortality of 6.5% for VVI-40 vs 10.1% for DDDR-70 (relative hazard, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.84-3.09) and hospitalization for congestive heart failure of 13.3% for VVI-40 vs 22.6% for DDDR-70 (relative hazard, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.97-2.46), also trended in favor of VVI-40 programming. For patients with standard indications for ICD therapy, no indication for cardiac pacing, and an LVEF of 40% or less, dual-chamber pacing offers no clinical advantage over ventricular backup pacing and may be detrimental by increasing the combined end point of death or hospitalization for heart failure.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2003; 288(24):3115-23. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) aims for symptomatic relief and reduction of mortality both from sudden death and pump failure. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is highly effective in the prevention of sudden death, but no mortality benefit in advanced CHF has yet been shown. Biventricular pacing may lead to functional improvement in selected patients with CHF. Thus, a biventricular pacemaker with defibrillation capabilities may be ideal for patients with advanced CHF. We retrospectively analyzed the data from 384 patients (age 59 +/- 12 years, 322 male and 62 female) with regard to New York Heart Association (NYHA) CHF class, mean QRS duration, mean PR interval, presence of a QRS > 120 msec and incidence of atrial fibrillation at the time of ICD implantation. Based on eligibility criteria from studies in biventricular pacing, we analyzed how many patients may benefit from biventricular pacing. Patients with CHF were older (NYHA class III: 60.9 +/- 9.7, class II: 61.3 +/- 10 versus class I: 50.8 +/- 13.6 years, p < 0.001 each) and mean QRS duration was longer with advanced CHF (NYHA class III 127.8 +/- 30 msec; class II 119.4 +/- 27.7 msec; class 0-1: 103.9 +/- 17.7 msec, p < 0.001, analysis of variance) as was the mean PR interval (NYHA class III 189.9 +/- 33.5 msec; class II 176.1 +/- 29.3 msec; class 0-1 162.7 +/- 45.9 msec, p < 0.001, analysis of variance). The incidence of atrial fibrillation was higher in class III (25.5%) compared with class 0-1 (16.9%) and class II patients (14.1%, p = 0.043, chi-square test). A total of 28 patients (7.3%) fulfilled eligibility criteria for biventricular pacing if NYHA class III patients were considered candidates and 48 (12.5%) if patients with NYHA II CHF and ejection fraction < or = 30% were included. Thus, biventricular pacing may offer a promising therapeutic approach for a significant proportion of patients with CHF at risk for ventricular tachyarrhythmia.The American Journal of Cardiology 04/1999; 83(5B):143D-150D. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the effects of biventricular pacing (BVP) on ventricular function, functional status, quality of life and hospitalization in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), prior atrioventricular (AV) junction ablation and right ventricular (RV) pacing performed for chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). Although the benefit of BVP in CHF should theoretically extend to the patient with chronic RV pacing and AF, to our knowledge, no study has determined the effects of BVP on symptoms and ventricular function in these patients. This patient population allows for the evaluation of ventricular resynchronization independent of any BVP-induced changes on the AV interval. Twenty consecutive patients with severe CHF (ejection fraction < or = 0.35, New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class III or IV), prior AV junction ablation and RV pacing performed for permanent AF of at least six months' duration were studied. Electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, functional status evaluations and quality of life surveys were completed before and at three to six months after implant. The NYHA functional classification improved 29% (p < 0.001). The left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction increased 44% (p < 0.001), the LV diastolic diameter decreased 6.5% (p <0.003) and the end-systolic diameter decreased 8.5% (p < 0.01). The number of hospitalizations decreased by 81% (p < 0.001). The scores on the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure survey improved by 33% (p < 0.01). We conclude that BVP improves the LV function and the symptoms of CHF in patients with permanent AF and chronic RV pacing. These benefits are comparable to those described for patients in sinus rhythm suggesting that BVP acts through ventricular resynchronization rather than optimization of the AV delay.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2002; 39(8):1258-63. · 14.09 Impact Factor