Secular trends in physical fitness and obesity in Danish 9-year-old girls and boys: Odense School Child Study and Danish substudy of the European Youth Heart Study.
ABSTRACT Low physical fitness and obesity have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Obesity is on the increase in many countries, but little is known about physical fitness trends. Monitoring of changes in fitness and obesity in the population is important for preventive strategies, and the aim of this study was to analyse the secular trends in fitness and body composition in Danish children.
Two representative population studies were conducted 12 years apart on 9-year-old children in the same location: the Odense School Child Study in 1985-86 and the European Youth Heart Study in 1997-98. In both studies, physical fitness was determined by a maximal cycle ergometer test, and obesity was assessed by skinfolds.
Boys had a lower physical fitness and were fatter in 1997-98 than in 1985-86. In addition, an increased polarization is emerging, with the difference between the fit and the unfit and the difference between the lean and the fat being greater in 1997-98 than in 1985-86. In girls, a similar polarization was found, but no overall change in fitness or obesity.
The negative trend and increased polarization for physical fitness and obesity in Danish children suggest a future generation with a higher degree of CVD risk.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Childhood obesity and hypertension are global problems that are on the rise in India. Improving physical activity is an accepted main line of strategy for overcoming poor body composition, hypertension and reduced cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) all of which are considered as independent risk factors for the development of future cardiovascular complications. Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of regular unstructured physical training and athletic level training on anthropometric measures, body composition, blood pressure and cardio respiratory fitness in adolescents. Settings and Design: This is a collaborative study between the Department of physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research and Residential school, Jawahar Navodhya Vidyalaya, Puducherry, India. Method and Material: Student volunteers in the age group of 12-17 years were classified into athletes (group 1) and physically active non-athletes (group 2). Parameters measured and calculated were weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage (BF%), fat free mass (FFM), Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial pressure (MAP), Rate pressure product (RPP) and Predicted VO2 max. Statistical Analysis used: Mean difference between the groups was analysed using unpaired Student's t-test. All statistical analysis was carried out for two-tailed significance at the 5 % level using SPSS version 19 (SPSSInc, USA). Results: Anthropometric measures, body composition measures and blood pressure values of both the group students were within the normal limits. There was no significant difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters between the group 1 and group 2 students. DBP, MAP and RPP were significantly lower in group 1 students when compared to group 2 students. VO2 max values were more in group 1 girls as compared to group 2 girls while the values of boys were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Regular unstructured physical activity for 60 minutes daily for the duration of one year can help the students to maintain their anthropometric parameters, body composition measures and CRF at par with the athletes of the same age and gender. However, athletic level training further reduces the cardiovascular load of the adolescent students.Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 09/2013; 7(9):1878-82.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about whether levels of physical fitness, which is related to adiposity and physical activity (PA), have changed in children, particularly the progressive increase in childhood obesity levels. We aimed to examine the time trends in resting pulse rate (a marker of physical fitness) among UK children, in order to better understand the trends in levels of physical fitness in recent decades. We used a cross-sectional study design and included data on over 22 000 children aged 9-11 years (mean 10.3 years) from five population-based studies conducted in the UK between 1980 and 2008. Resting pulse rate (bpm). Observed mean resting pulse rate was higher for girls than boys (82.2 bpm vs 78.7 bpm). During the study period mean pulse rate increased by 0.07 bpm/year (95% CI 0.04 to 0.09) among boys and to a lesser extent among girls, by 0.04 bpm/year (0.01 to 0.06) (p<0.05 for gender interaction). For boys, there was an indication that the trend was steeper after the mid-1990s, compared to that prior to 1994 (annual increase 0.14 vs 0.04 bpm). The trends for Body Mass Index (BMI) accounted for only 13.8% (11.3% to 16.3%) of increase in pulse rate for boys and 17.2% (9.4% to 24.9%) for girls. Increases in mean resting pulse rate have occurred during the period 1980-2008 in girls and especially in boys. The increase was not explained by increased BMI. The observed trends in children, though modest, could have important public health implications for future cardiovascular risk.Archives of Disease in Childhood 11/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist circumference (WC) in healthy children, and to compare agreement between the different methods.Subjects/Methods:Based on 11 481 physical examinations (anthropometry) and 1200 DXA scans from a longitudinal cohort of Danish children (n=2647), we established reference curves (LMS-method) for SF %BF, WC (birth to 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.).Results:%BF differed with age, sex, pubertal stage and social class. SF %BF correlated strongly with DXA %BF (r=0.86). BMI and WC also correlated positively with DXA %BF (Z-scores; r= 0.78 and 0.69). Sensitivity and specificity were 79.5 and 93.8 for SF %BF, 75.9 and 90.3 for BMI and 59.2 and 95.4 for WC.Conclusions:SF %BF showed the highest correlation and best agreement with DXA %BF in identifying children with excess fat (+1 s.d.).European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 29 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.282.European journal of clinical nutrition 01/2014; · 3.07 Impact Factor