Secular trends in physical fitness and obesity in Danish 9-year-old girls and boys: Odense School Child Study and Danish substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense University, Odense NV, Denmark.
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports (Impact Factor: 2.9). 07/2004; 14(3):150-5. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2004.00365.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Low physical fitness and obesity have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Obesity is on the increase in many countries, but little is known about physical fitness trends. Monitoring of changes in fitness and obesity in the population is important for preventive strategies, and the aim of this study was to analyse the secular trends in fitness and body composition in Danish children.
Two representative population studies were conducted 12 years apart on 9-year-old children in the same location: the Odense School Child Study in 1985-86 and the European Youth Heart Study in 1997-98. In both studies, physical fitness was determined by a maximal cycle ergometer test, and obesity was assessed by skinfolds.
Boys had a lower physical fitness and were fatter in 1997-98 than in 1985-86. In addition, an increased polarization is emerging, with the difference between the fit and the unfit and the difference between the lean and the fat being greater in 1997-98 than in 1985-86. In girls, a similar polarization was found, but no overall change in fitness or obesity.
The negative trend and increased polarization for physical fitness and obesity in Danish children suggest a future generation with a higher degree of CVD risk.

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Available from: Lars Bo Andersen, Sep 30, 2014
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    • "Prior studies have shown that both PAL and obesity track from childhood and adolescence to adulthood (Deshmukh-Taskar et al., 2006; Fernandes and Zanesco, 2010). Therefore, it is a common belief that maintenance of adequate health-related physical fitness protects against the development of CD in adulthood (Chen et al., 2002; Fernandes and Zanesco, 2010; Wedderkopp et al., 2004). Furthermore, studies have shown that obese youths are less physically active and have lower fitness than nonobese youths (Coelho-e-Silva et al., 2013; Ekelund et al., 2002; Shang et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) status and physical performance in Brazilian children. The analyzed sample was composed of 978 children of both sexes (518 boys and 460 girls), aged 7 to 11 years. BMI and skinfolds were measured, and three motor tests were applied (flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength/endurance). In both sexes, overweight/obese children presented poor performance in all motor tests, except flexibility. In general, overweight/obese children have an increased odds ratio (OR) to present poor physical performance (boys: OR = 3.64 for cardiorespiratory fitness, OR = 1.94 for muscular strength/endurance, OR = 1.52 for flexibility; girls: OR = 5.03 for cardiorespiratory fitness and OR = 2.62 for muscular strength/endurance). In conclusion, for both sexes, a poor physical performance in the tests measuring cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength/ endurance was associated with the presence of overweight/obesity.
    Journal of Child Health Care 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1367493515598645 · 0.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Lifestyle behaviors differed between clusters, primarily among girls. Among healthy adolescent girls, there is a decline in physical activity during adolescence [25] and a polarization of cardiorespiratory fitness [26]. Public health issues, in general, aim to promote physical activity in adolescent girls and there seem to be a need ensure this also takes place in clinical practice, with great attention to health education on physical activity and healthy lifestyle behaviors. "
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    • "значајној мери условљава њихов правилан раст и развој. Нажалост, у последње две декаде сведоци смо све израженије тенденције смањења физичке активности деце што се дешава не само код нас, већ и у земљама окружења (Šiljeg и сар., 2008; Strel и сар., 2009), као и у земљама развијеног света (Janz et al., 2000; Tomkinson et al., 2003; Wedderkopp et al., 2004). "
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