Remarkable anatomic variations in paranasal sinus region and their clinical importance.
ABSTRACT With the advent of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and coronal computed tomography (CT) imaging, considerable attention has been directed toward paranasal region anatomy. Detailed knowledge of anatomic variations in paranasal sinus region is critical for surgeons performing endoscopic sinus surgery as well as for the radiologist involved in the preoperative work-up. To be in the known anatomical variants with some accompanying pathologies, directly influence the success of diagnostic and therapeutic management of paranasal sinus diseases. A review of 512 (1024 sides) paranasal sinus tomographic scans was carried out to expose remarkable anatomic variations of this region. We used only coronal sections, but for some cases to clear exact diagnosis, additional axial CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nasal endoscopy were also performed. In this pictorial essay, rates of remarkable anatomic variations in paranasal region were displayed. The images of some interesting cases were illustrated, such as the Onodi cell in which isolated mucocele caused loss of visual acuity, agger nasi cell, Haller's cell, uncinate bulla, giant superior concha bullosa, inferior concha bullosa, bilateral carotid artery protrusion into sphenoid sinus, maxillary sinus agenesis, bilateral secondary middle turbinate (SMT) and sphenomaxillary plate. The clinical importance of all these variations were discussed under the light of the literature. It was suggested that remarkable anatomic variations of paranasal region and their possible pathologic consequences should be well defined in order to improve success of management strategies, and to avoid potential complications of endoscopic sinus surgery. The radiologist must pay close attention to anatomical variations in the preoperative evaluation.
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ABSTRACT: The Agger nasi cell (ANC) and the frontal sinus ostium (FO) are important structures that can influence the anatomy and physiology of the frontal recess. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and size of ANC and the FO and correlate them according to gender, race and among themselves. METHOD: A prospective study with 40 patients who underwent CT of the paranasal sinuses with sagittal reconstruction. Measurements: ANC (APAN) anteroposterior diameter, ANC (CCAN) craniocaudal diameter, ANC (LLAN) side-to-side diameter, anteroposterior diameter of the FO (APFO) and side-to-side diameter of the FO (LLFO). RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were male and 18 females, mean age 33.7 years. Most patients were white (45%), followed by browns (32.5%), blacks (20%) and asians (2.5%). The ANC was present in 98.7% of patients. There was statistical difference for APAN on females and LLAN on females and on the total sample. There were no differences for all measurements regarding gender, as well as the race. ANC and FO measurements showed positive correlation, but poor or very poor. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ANC in our sample was high and did not show a statistically significant difference for most measurements. The correlation between measurements of ANC and the FO was poor or very poor.Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology 06/2013; 79(3):285-292. · 0.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although diseases of the paranasal sinuses have a relatively homogeneous clinical presentation, their causes can vary considerably. Radiological imaging only became relevant in paranasal sinus diagnostics following the introduction of cross-sectional imaging. In addition to technical details on imaging procedures and the individual criteria of the different modalities, anatomic details and congenital variations are presented. Particularly in acute inflammatory diseases as well as traumatic lesions, imaging is essential in preoperative planning and postoperative control. The article gives a detailed description of options in radiologic imaging of the paranasal sinuses.Der Radiologe 02/2010; 50(3):277-94; quiz 95-6. · 0.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Paranasal sinus mucocele is the cystic formation lined by inflammatory changed mucoperiosteum. This is slow-growing pathology with a tendency to bone erosion. The symptoms are dependent on the direction of the penetration, and are as follows: increasing headaches, deformations of frontal or orbital region, ophthalmic manifestations such as lacrimation, decreased visual acuity, exophthalmos, ocular movement limitation, diplopia. The most common location of the mucocele is fronto-ethmoid region. The most useful diagnostic tests are a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a computed tomography (CT) which show the progress of the disease and bone destructions. Surgery is the only method of treatment (external approach or FESS). This paper reports the case of a 74-year-old woman with ethmoid mucocele penetrating into the orbit, frontal sinus and anterior cranial fossa with compression of frontal lobe of the brain. The patient underwent CT and MRI and was treated with endoscopic intranasal marsupialization of the cyst. There are no clinical signs of disease recurrence 7 months after surgery. The endoscopic surgical management in treatment of sinus mucocele is a good alternative to the operation from external approach because of its low invasiveness, low complication risk, rapid healing and good therapeutic effects.Otolaryngologia polska. The Polish otolaryngology 67(5):261-264.