Medullary pathways mediating specific sympathetic responses to activation of dorsomedial hypothalamus.
ABSTRACT We sought to determine which medullary sympathetic premotor neurons mediate the cardiovascular and thermogenic effects resulting from activation of neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) in urethane/chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Unilateral disinhibition of neurons in the DMH with microinjection of bicuculline (2 mM, 30 nl) caused significant increases in brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA, +828+/-169% of control, n=16), cardiac SNA (+516+/-82% of control, n=16), renal SNA (RSNA, +203+/-25% of control, n=28) and, accompanied by increases in BAT temperature (+1.6+/-0.3 degrees C, n=11), end-tidal CO(2) (+0.7+/-0.1%, n=15), heart rate (+113+/-7 beats/min, n=32), arterial pressure (+19+/-2 mm Hg, n=32) and plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. Inhibition of neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (RPa) with microinjection of muscimol (6 mM, 60 nl) abolished the increases in BAT SNA and BAT temperature and reduced the tachycardia induced by disinhibition of DMH neurons. Inhibition of neurons in the RVLM with microinjection of muscimol (6 mM, 60 nl) markedly reduced the increase in RSNA, but did not affect the evoked tachycardia or the increase in arterial pressure. Combined glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67) immunocytochemistry and pseudorabies viral retrograde tracing from BAT indicated close appositions between GABAergic terminals and DMH neurons in sympathetic pathways to BAT. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the existence of a tonically active, GABAergic inhibitory input to neurons in the DMH and that blockade of this inhibition increases sympathetic outflow to thermogenic and cardiovascular targets by activating functionally specific populations of sympathetic premotor neurons: the excitation of BAT SNA and BAT thermogenesis is mediated through putative sympathetic premotor neurons in the RPa, while the activation in RSNA is dependent on those in RVLM. These data increase our understanding of the central pathways mediating changes in sympathetically mediated thermogenesis that is activated in thermoregulation, stress responses and energy balance.
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ABSTRACT: The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) serves as the midbrain link between forebrain emotional processing systems and motor pathways used in the defense reaction. Part of this response depends upon PAG efferent pathways that modulate cardiovascular-related sympathetic outflow systems, including those that regulate the heart. While it is known that the PAG projects to vagal preganglionic neurons, including possibly cardiovagal motoneurons, no information exists on the PAG circuits that may affect sympathetically mediated cardiac functions and, thus, the purpose of this study was to use neuroanatomical methods to identify these pathways. First, viral transneuronal retrograde tracing experiments were performed in which pseudorabies virus (PRV) was injected into the stellate ganglion of rats. After 4 days survival, five PAG regions contained transynaptically infected neurons; these included the dorsomedial, lateral and ventrolateral PAG columns as well as the Edinger-Westphal and precommissural nuclei. Second, the descending efferent PAG projections were studied with the anterograde axonal marker Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin (PHA-L) with a particular focus on determining whether the PAG projects to the intermediolateral cell column (IML). Almost no axonal labeling was found throughout the thoracic IML suggesting that the PAG modulates sympathetic functions by indirect pathways involving synaptic relays through sympathetic premotor cell groups, especially those found in the medulla oblongata. This possibility was examined by a double tracing study. PHA-L was first injected into either the lateral or ventrolateral PAG and after 6 days, PRV was injected into the ipsilateral stellate ganglion. After an additional 4 days survival, a double immunohistochemical procedure for co-visualization of PRV and PHA-L was used to identify the sympathetic premotor regions that receive an input from the PAG. The PAG innervated specific groups of sympathetic premotor neurons in the hypothalamus, pons, and medulla as well as providing reciprocal intercolumnar connections within the PAG itself (Jansen et al., Brain Res. 784 (1998) 329-336). The major route terminates in the ventral medulla, especially within the medial region which contains sympathetic premotor neurons lying within the raphe magnus and gigantocellular reticular nucleus, pars alpha. Both serotonergic and non-serotonergic sympathetic premotor neurons in these two regions receive inputs from the PAG. Weak PAG projections to sympathetic premotor neurons were found in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (including to C1 adrenergic neurons), locus coeruleus, A5 cell group, paraventricular and lateral hypothalamic nuclei. In summary, both the lateral and ventrolateral PAG columns appear to be capable of modulating cardiac sympathetic functions via a series of indirect pathways involving sympathetic premotor neurons found in selected sites in the hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata, with the major outflow terminating in bulbospinal regions of the rostral ventromedial medulla.Brain Research 06/1998; 792(2):179-92. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to identify the specific afferent projections to the rostral and caudal nucleus raphe magnus, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus pars α and the rostral nucleus raphe pallidus. For this purpose, small iontophoretic injections of the sensitive retrograde tracer choleratoxin (subunit b) were made in each of these structures. In agreement with previous retrograde studies, after all injection sites, a substantial to large number of labeled neurons were observed in the dorsal hypothalamic area and dorsolateral and ventrolateral parts of the periaqueductal gray, and a small to moderate number were found in the lateral preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, parafascicular area, parabrachial nuclei, subcoeruleus area and parvocellular reticular nucleus. In addition, depending on the nucleus injected, we observed a variable number of retrogradely labeled cells in other regions. After injections in the rostral nucleus raphe magnus, a large number of labeled cells were seen in the prelimbic, infralimbic, medial and lateral precentral cortices and the dorsal part of the periaqueductal gray. In contrast, after injections in the other nuclei, fewer cells were localized in these structures. Following raphe pallidus injections, a substantial to large number of labeled cells were observed in the medial preoptic area, median preoptic nucleus, ventromedial part of the periaqueductal gray, Kölliker-Fuse and lateral paragigantocellular reticular nuclei. Following injections in the other areas, a small to moderate number of cells appeared. After gigantocellular reticular pars α injections, a very large and substantial number of labeled neurons were found in the deep mesencephalic reticular formation and oral pontine reticular nucleus, respectively. After the other injections, fewer cells were seen. Following rostral raphe magnus or raphe pallidus injections, a substantial number of labeled cells were observed in the insular and perirhinal cortices. Following caudal raphe magnus or gigantocellular reticular pars α injections, fewer cells were found. After raphe magnus or gigantocellular reticular pars α injections, a moderate to substantial number of cells were localized in the fields of Forel, lateral habenular nucleus and ventral caudal pontine reticular nucleus. Following raphe pallidus injections, only a small number of cells were seen. Our data indicate that the rostral and caudal parts of the nucleus raphe magnus, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus pars α and the nucleus raphe pallidus receive afferents of comparable strength from a large number of structures. In addition, a number of other afferents give rise to stronger inputs to one or two of the four nuclei studied. Such differential inputs might be directed to populations of neurons with different physiological roles previously recorded specifically in these nuclei.Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - J CHEM NEUROANAT. 01/1997; 13(1):1-21.
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ABSTRACT: The dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) output pathways are revealed by using autoradiographic tracing of tritium labeled Leucine and by the recently introduced Phaseolus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin immunocytochemical method. Terminal labeling appears in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, nucleus ambiguus and in the parvocellular reticular formation at the lower medullary level. Mesencephalic labeling is found in the periaqueductal gray at the level of the oculomotor nucleus. In the hypothalamus labeled terminal boutons are identified in the lateral and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei but also in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, the circumventricular organs are found to receive a dense DMH input, particularly the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and the subfornical organ. These findings are discussed in relation to the dorsomedial nucleus involvement in the control of feeding and pancreatic hormone release. It appears that the DMH participates in this control via descending pathways to the preganglionic pancreas innervating neurons but also via a neuroendocrine route. The latter connection is indicated by terminal labeling in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus in the area that contains the corticotropin-releasing factor positive cells.Brain Research Bulletin 03/1986; 16(2):231-48. · 2.94 Impact Factor