Cornelia de Lange syndrome is caused by mutations in NIPBL, the human homolog of Drosophila melanogaster Nipped-B.

Division of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
Nature Genetics (Impact Factor: 29.65). 07/2004; 36(6):631-5. DOI: 10.1038/ng1364
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS; OMIM 122470) is a dominantly inherited multisystem developmental disorder characterized by growth and cognitive retardation; abnormalities of the upper limbs; gastroesophageal dysfunction; cardiac, ophthalmologic and genitourinary anomalies; hirsutism; and characteristic facial features. Genital anomalies, pyloric stenosis, congenital diaphragmatic hernias, cardiac septal defects, hearing loss and autistic and self-injurious tendencies also frequently occur. Prevalence is estimated to be as high as 1 in 10,000 (ref. 4). We carried out genome-wide linkage exclusion analysis in 12 families with CdLS and identified four candidate regions, of which chromosome 5p13.1 gave the highest multipoint lod score of 2.7. This information, together with the previous identification of a child with CdLS with a de novo t(5;13)(p13.1;q12.1) translocation, allowed delineation of a 1.1-Mb critical region on chromosome 5 for the gene mutated in CdLS. We identified mutations in one gene in this region, which we named NIPBL, in four sporadic and two familial cases of CdLS. We characterized the genomic structure of NIPBL and found that it is widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues. The fly homolog of NIPBL, Nipped-B, facilitates enhancer-promoter communication and regulates Notch signaling and other developmental pathways in Drosophila melanogaster.


Available from: Shimako Kawauchi, Jun 11, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, microcephaly, hypertrichosis, upper limb defects, growth retardation, developmental delay, and a variety of associated malformations. We present a population-based epidemiological study of the classical form of CdLS. The data were extracted from the database of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) database, a European network of birth defect registries which follow a standard methodology. Based on 23 years of epidemiologic monitoring (8,558,346 births in the 1980-2002 period), we found the prevalence of the classical form of CdLS to be 1.24/100,000 births or 1:81,000 births and estimated the overall CdLS prevalence at 1.6-2.2/100,000. Live born children accounted for 91.5% (97/106) of cases, fetal deaths 2.8% (3/106), and terminations of pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis 5.7% (6/106). The most frequent associated congenital malformations were limb defects (73.1%), congenital heart defects (45.6%), central nervous system malformations (40.2%), and cleft palate (21.7%). In the last 11 years, as much as 68% of cases with major malformations were not detected by routine prenatal US. Live born infants with CdLS have a high first week survival (91.4%). All patients were sporadic. Maternal and paternal age did not seem to be risk factors for CdLS. Almost 70% of patients, born after the 37th week of gestation, weighed <or=2,500 g. Low birth weight correlated with a more severe phenotype. Severe limb anomalies were significantly more often present in males.
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a 2-year-old Japanese girl with Cornelia-de Lange syndrome (CdLS) who had mental and growth retardation, together with characteristic facial anomalies and mild extremity malformations. She had a balanced chromosomal translocation, 46,XX,t(5;13)(p13.1;q12.1) de novo. Surprisingly, this was the same translocation that had provided a clue to the identification of a major causative gene for CdLS, NIPBL [Krantz et al., 2004; Tonkin et al., 2004]. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the breakpoint was confirmed to lie within NIPBL at 5p13.1. Furthermore, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) demonstrated a cryptic 1-Mb deletion harboring six known genes at 1q25-q31.1. A FISH analysis of her parents confirmed that the deletion was de novo. Although patients with interstitial deletions at 1q are rare, some of their features were similar to those observed in our patient, indicating that her clinical manifestations are likely to be affected by not only the disruption of NIPBL but also the concomitant microdeletion at 1q25-q31.1. The present case suggests that array-CGH can uncover cryptic genomic aberrations affecting atypical phenotypes even in well-known congenital disorders.
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