Youth risk behavior surveillance--United States, 2003.
ABSTRACT Priority health-risk behaviors, which contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults, often are established during youth, extend into adulthood, are interrelated, and are preventable.
This report covers data collected during February-December 2003.
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults--behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity--plus overweight. YRBSS includes a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as state and local school-based surveys conducted by education and health agencies. This report summarizes results from the national survey, 32 state surveys, and 18 local surveys conducted among students in grades 9-12 during February-December 2003.
In the United States, 70.8% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from only four causes: motor-vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrated that, during the 30 days preceding the survey, numerous high school students engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes: 30.2% had ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; 17.1% had carried a weapon; 44.9% had drunk alcohol; and 22.4% had used marijuana. In addition, during the 12 months preceding the survey, 33.0% of high school students had been in a physical fight, and 8.5% had attempted suicide. Substantial morbidity and social problems among young persons also result from unintended pregnancies and STDs, including HIV infection. In 2003, 46.7% of high school students had ever had sexual intercourse; 37% of sexually active students had not used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 3.2% had ever injected an illegal drug. Among adults aged > or =25 years, 62.9% of all deaths results from two causes: cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Results from the 2003 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey demonstrate that the majority of risk behaviors associated with these two causes of death are initiated during adolescence. In 2003, a total of 21.9% of high school students had smoked cigarettes during the 30 days preceding the survey; 78% had not eaten > or =5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables during the 7 days preceding the survey; 33.4% had participated in an insufficient amount of physical activity; and 13.5% were overweight.
YRBSS data are being used to measure progress toward achieving 15 national health objectives for 2010 and three of the 10 leading health indicators. In addition, education and health officials at national, state, and local levels are using these YRBSS data to improve policies and programs to reduce priority health-risk behaviors among youth.
SourceAvailable from: Charbel El Bcheraoui[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors investigated HIV knowledge change among a cohort of juvenile detainees. Participants completed an HIV knowledge survey at baseline and up to 4 more times over 6 years. The authors calculated knowledge scores; the time serial trend of scores was modeled using generalized estimating equations. A baseline survey was completed by 798 participants, ages 14 to 18 years; mean HIV knowledge scores ranged from 11.4 to 14.1 (maximum score = 18). Males had significantly lower HIV knowledge scores than females at baseline only. Over time, Hispanic participants had significantly lower scores than non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White participants. Overall, HIV knowledge increased but was still suboptimal 5 years after baseline. These findings suggest the need to develop and strengthen HIV prevention education programs in youth detention settings. © The Author(s) 2015.Journal of Correctional Health Care 04/2015; 21(2):112-24. DOI:10.1177/1078345815572596
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ABSTRACT: National estimates indicate that anywhere from one in ten to one in five adolescents experience physical dating violence and an even greater number experience verbal or psychological abuse. The Fourth R: Strategies for Healthy Youth Relationships is a dating violence prevention curriculum, previously shown to reduce physical dating violence among Canadian ninth-grade students. Utilizing a randomized controlled trial design, this study tests the effectiveness of the Fourth R curriculum with a younger, diverse, urban population in the Bronx, New York. A secondary quasi-experimental study seeks to examine whether the Fourth R had any school-wide benefits across the experimental schools, reaching even those students who did not directly receive the curriculum. We hypothesized that students who were exposed to the Fourth R would show improvements in the following primary and secondary target attitudes and behaviors: teen dating violence, sexual harassment/assault, peer violence/bullying, sexual activity, drug and alcohol use, perceptions of school safety, acceptance of gender stereotypes and pro-violence beliefs, and pro-social responses to violence. Methods Incoming seventh-grade students in ten Bronx middle schools were assigned to class sections, which were then randomly assigned to receive either the Fourth R or a standard seventh-grade curriculum during the 2011-2012 academic year. Surveys were administered to students at three points: prior to program implementation (B), at the conclusion of the program year (T1), and at the conclusion of the subsequent school year (T2). A total of 570 students were available for main program impact analyses at T1, and 517 students were available for T2 analyses. The surveys were supplemented with a dosage measure of the Fourth R curriculum in each experimental school as well as with qualitative interviews with program participants and administrators. Results Consistent with previous literature, just over half of the students (57%) were already dating and fewer than one in ten students (8%) were sexually active at baseline. Nearly one-fifth of students reported experiencing dating violence (20%) or physical sexual harassment/assault (20%) or perpetrating sexual harassment/assault (21%) against peers; twice as many students (41%) reported having been the victim of any sexual harassment/assault. The majority of students reported having experienced physical peer violence and/or emotional/psychological forms of bullying as either a perpetrator (56%) or victim (68%). Incidence of physical dating violence was lower (8%). A minority of students (14%) reported recent drug or alcohol use. In terms of overall program effects, the results generally show little impact of the Fourth R curriculum on primary or secondary target behaviors. The program did not generally reduce dating violence, peer violence/bullying, or drug and alcohol use among the experimental sample. Students exposed to the Fourth R were more likely than control students to delay sexual activity; and students who received more of the curriculum experienced even greater delays. Students who received more of the curriculum also perpetrated less bullying and saw greater attitudinal changes than students who received lower dosages of the curriculum. The Fourth R was also found to reduce dating violence among those high-risk students who had already experienced or perpetrated dating violence at baseline. Conclusion This study demonstrates modest impacts of the Fourth R curriculum among an urban middle school target population in the Bronx, New York. The findings suggest that dosage and program delivery matter. In schools with higher fidelity to the program model, the Fourth R produced delays in sexual activity, decreased peer violence/bullying perpetration, and reduced acceptance of pro-violence beliefs and gender stereotypes. High risk students were especially likely to experience program benefits at follow-up.
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ABSTRACT: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is the deliberate, self-inflicted destruction of body tissue without suicidal intent and an important clinical phenomenon. Rates of NSSI appear to be disproportionately high in adolescents and young adults, and is a risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior. The present study reports the psychometric properties of the Impulse, Self-harm and Suicide Ideation Questionnaire for Adolescents (ISSIQ-A), a measure designed to comprehensively assess the impulsivity, NSSI behaviors and suicide ideation. An additional module of this questionnaire assesses the functions of NSSI. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the scale on 1722 youths showed items' suitability and confirmed a model of four different dimensions (Impulse, Self-harm, Risk-behavior and Suicide ideation) with good fit and validity. Further analysis showed that youth׳s engagement in self-harm may exert two different functions: to create or alleviate emotional states, and to influence social relationships. Our findings contribute to research and assessment on non-suicidal self-injury, suggesting that the ISSIQ-A is a valid and reliable measure to assess impulse, self-harm and suicidal thoughts, in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.04/2015; 227(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.01.031