Cholesterol lowering effect of dietary weight loss and orlistat treatment--efficacy and limitations.
ABSTRACT Orlistat reduces energy uptake by the impairment of fat digestion and some evidence indicates it also lowers plasma cholesterol.
To examine total, low-density lipoprotein- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol during a weight reducing regimen, and assess the effect of orlistat in lowering cholesterol levels independent of its weight reducing efficacy.
A total of 448 patients with elevated cholesterol according to cardiovascular risk factors entered a 2 week single-blind run-in period on a hypocaloric diet. Of 384 patients were subsequently assigned double-blind treatment with orlistat (3 x 120 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months in conjunction with the hypocaloric diet.
Weight loss in the orlistat group was 7.4 kg vs. 4.9 kg with placebo. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased by 25-30 mg/dL vs. 10-15 mg/dL with placebo. Reduction of cholesterol with orlistat was significantly greater than anticipated from weight loss alone. In patients with cardiovascular risk factors entering the study with lower cholesterol values orlistat was also superior to placebo. On the contrary, reduction of cholesterol concentrations never exceeded 20%.
Orlistat has a cholesterol lowering efficacy independent of its weight reducing effect. Because of the limited therapeutic effectiveness, patients at high cardiovascular risk should receive rather early additional cholesterol lowering medication during weight loss programmes.
- SourceAvailable from: Stephen E Weis[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although cholesterol-reducing treatment has been shown to reduce fatal and nonfatal coronary disease in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), it is unknown whether benefit from the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients without CHD extends to individuals with average serum cholesterol levels, women, and older persons. To compare lovastatin with placebo for prevention of the first acute major coronary event in men and women without clinically evident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with average total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels and below-average high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient clinics in Texas. A total of 5608 men and 997 women with average TC and LDL-C and below-average HDL-C (as characterized by lipid percentiles for an age- and sex-matched cohort without cardiovascular disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] III). Mean (SD) TC level was 5.71 (0.54) mmol/L (221  mg/dL) (51 st percentile), mean (SD) LDL-C level was 3.89 (0.43) mmol/L (150  mg/dL) (60th percentile), mean (SD) HDL-C level was 0.94 (0.14) mmol/L (36  mg/dL) for men and 1.03 (0.14) mmol/L (40  mg/dL) for women (25th and 16th percentiles, respectively), and median (SD) triglyceride levels were 1.78 (0.86) mmol/L (158  mg/dL) (63rd percentile). Lovastatin (20-40 mg daily) or placebo in addition to a low-saturated fat, low-cholesterol diet. First acute major coronary event defined as fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or sudden cardiac death. After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, lovastatin reduced the incidence of first acute major coronary events (1 83 vs 116 first events; relative risk [RR], 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.79; P<.001), myocardial infarction (95 vs 57 myocardial infarctions; RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43-0.83; P=.002), unstable angina (87 vs 60 first unstable angina events; RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; P=.02), coronary revascularization procedures (157 vs 106 procedures; RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.52-0.85; P=.001), coronary events (215 vs 163 coronary events; RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.92; P =.006), and cardiovascular events (255 vs 194 cardiovascular events; RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.91; P = .003). Lovastatin (20-40 mg daily) reduced LDL-C by 25% to 2.96 mmol/L (115 mg/dL) and increased HDL-C by 6% to 1.02 mmol/L (39 mg/dL). There were no clinically relevant differences in safety parameters between treatment groups. Lovastatin reduces the risk for the first acute major coronary event in men and women with average TC and LDL-C levels and below-average HDL-C levels. These findings support the inclusion of HDL-C in risk-factor assessment, confirm the benefit of LDL-C reduction to a target goal, and suggest the need for reassessment of the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines regarding pharmacological intervention.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/1998; 279(20):1615-22. · 29.98 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Long-term maintenance of weight loss remains a therapeutic challenge in obesity treatment. This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to test the hypothesis that orlistat, a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, is significantly more effective than a placebo in preventing weight regain. Obese subjects who lost > or = 8% of their initial body weight during a 6-mo lead-in of a prescribed hypoenergetic diet (4180-kJ/d deficit) with no adjunctive pharmacotherapy were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 30 mg orlistat, 60 mg orlistat, or 120 mg orlistat 3 times daily for 1 y in combination with a maintenance diet to help prevent weight regain. Of 1313 recruited subjects [body mass index (in kg/m2): 28-43], 729 subjects lost > or =8% of their initial body weight during the 6-mo weight-loss lead-in period and were enrolled in the double-blind phase. After 1 y, subjects treated with 120 mg orlistat 3 times daily regained less weight than did placebo-treated subjects (32.8 +/- 4.5% compared with 58.7 +/- 5.8% regain of lost weight; P < 0.001). Moreover, more subjects in the 120-mg orlistat group than in the placebo group regained < or = 25% of lost weight (47.5% of subjects compared with 29.9%). In addition, orlistat treatment (120 mg 3 times daily) was associated with significantly greater reductions in total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than was placebo (P < 0.001). The use of orlistat during periods of attempted weight maintenance minimizes weight readjustment and facilitates long-term improvement in obesity-related disease risk factors.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/1999; 69(6):1108-16. · 6.50 Impact Factor
- Circulation 06/1990; 81(5):1721-33. · 15.20 Impact Factor