Calcineurin contributes to the enhancing effect of adenosine on nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth via the decreased duration of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT Adenosine enhances nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. We found that adenosine increases NGF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but decreases the duration of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. Therefore, we further examined the involvement of protein phosphatase in these effects of adenosine. FK506, a specific calcineurin inhibitor, inhibited the enhancing effect of adenosine on the NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and increased the duration of p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation without affecting ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that adenosine decreases the duration of p38 MAP kinase via calcineurin activation, which contributes to the enhancement of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth.
- SourceAvailable from: Kate Karelina[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Environmental enrichment (EE) has marked beneficial effects on cognitive capacity. Given the possibility that this form of neuronal plasticity could function via the actuation of the same cellular signaling pathways that underlie learning/memory formation, we examined whether the MAPK cascade effector, mitogen/stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), could play a role in this process. MSK1 functions as a key signaling intermediate that couples changes in neuronal activity into inducible gene expression, neuronal plasticity, and learning/memory. Here, we show that MSK1 is expressed in excitatory cell layers of the hippocampus, progenitor cells of the subgranular zone (SGZ), and adult-born immature neurons. MSK1(-/-) mice exhibit reduced spinogenesis and decreased dendritic branching complexity in hippocampal neurons, compared with WT mice. Further, in MSK1(-/-) mice, progenitor cell proliferation within the SGZ was significantly reduced and, correspondingly, the number of immature neurons within the dentate gyrus was significantly reduced. Consistent with prior work, MSK1(-/-) mice displayed deficits in both spatial and recognition memory tasks. Strikingly, cognitive enhancement resulting from a 40-d period of EE was markedly reduced in MSK1(-/-) animals. MSK1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced levels of EE-induced spinogenesis and SGZ progenitor proliferation. Taken together, these data reveal that MSK1 serves as a critical regulator of hippocampal physiology and function and that MSK1 serves as a key conduit by which enriching stimuli augment cellular plasticity and cognition.Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) 10/2012; 19(11):550-60. · 4.08 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Components from Dendranthema × grandiflorum cv. "Mottenohoka" that promote neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells were identified and the mechanism of neurite outgrowth stimulated by isolated components was studied. Components that promoted the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) of PC12 cells were isolated. From various structural analyses, the active components were identified as acacetin and luteolin. The effects of acacetin or luteolin on PC12 cells were evaluated by electro-blotting and immunostaining. Slight neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells was observed within 2 days of culture after stimulation by luteolin or acacetin. However, NGF-stimulation induced remarkable neurite outgrowth in comparison. Neurite outgrowth by luteolin or acacetin was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor). The results of this study into the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and p38MAPK by flavonoids suggest that the inhibition of p38MAPK phosphorylation may effectively enhance neurite outgrowth.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:403503. · 2.18 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cellular calcium homeostasis is controlled predominantly by the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA). From four PMCA isoforms, PMCA1 and PMCA4 are ubiquitous, while PMCA2 and PMCA3 are found in excitable cells. We have previously shown that suppression of neuron-specific PMCAs in non-differentiated PC12 cells changed the cell morphology and triggered neuritogenesis. Using the microarrays, real-time PCR and immunodetection, we analyzed the effect of PMCA2 or PMCA3 reduction in PC12 cells on gene expression, with emphasis on calmodulin (CaM), neuromodulin (GAP43) and MAP kinases. In PMCA-suppressed lines total CaM increased, and the calm I and calm II genes appeared to be responsible for this effect. mRNA and protein levels of GAP43 were increased, however, the amount of phosphorylated form was lower than in control cells. Localization of CaM/GAP43 and CaM/pGAP43 differed between control and PMCA-reduced cells. In both PMCA-modified lines, amounts of ERK1/2 increased. While pERK1 decreased, the pERK2 level was similar in all examined lines. PMCA suppression did not change the p38 amount, but the p-p38 diminished. JNK2 protein decreased in both PMCA-reduced cells without changes in pJNK level. Microarray analysis revealed distinct expression patterns of certain genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, proliferation, migration, differentiation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Suppression of neuron-specific PMCA isoforms affected the phenotype of PC12 cells enabling adaptation to the sustained increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. This is the first report showing function of PMCA2 and PMCA3 isoforms in the regulation of signaling pathways in PC12 cells.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 09/2011; 360(1-2):89-102. · 2.39 Impact Factor